Document Type : Research Paper


1 Corresponding Author, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. E-mail:

2 Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. E-mail:


In order to study the effects of nitrogen starter, putrescine, and nano silicon on yield and some physiological and biochemical traits of rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in a farm near Ardabil in 2021. The experiment factors include nitrogen starter (no-nitrogen starter, application of 20 and 40 kg.ha-1 by urea), putrescine foliar aplication (foliar application with water, application of 0.5 and 1 mM putrescine), and nano silicon (foliar application with water, application of 25 and 50 mg.L-1). Means comparision show that the highest level of nano silicon, putrescine, and nitrogen starter have increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and proline content (139%, 137%, 138%, and 80%, respectively), compared to no application of nano silicon, putrescine, and starter nitrogen. The highest level nano silicon and putrescine has increased the activity of catalase, peroxidase enzymes and grain yield (40%, 16.3%, and 16.6%, respectively), compared to no application of nano silicon and putrescine. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (7.4%, 8%, and 15.5%, respectively) and the activity of polyphenol oxidase enzyme (17%, 9%, and 21%, respectively) are obtained at the highest level starter nitrogen, putrescine, and nano silicon. It seems that the application of nano silicon, putrescine, and starter nitrogen can increase grain yield of chickpea under rainfed condition as it improves physiological and biochemical traits.


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