Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.


In order to study the effect of bio fertilizers and putrescine on yield and some traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at various irrigation levels, a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, during 2018-2019. The factors include irrigation (full irrigation as control, irrigation withholding at 50% of heading and booting stages), bio fertilizers (no bio fertilizer, application of mycorrhiza, both application Psedomunas and Flavobacterim, application of mycorrhiza with Psedomunas and Flavobacterim) and putrescine foliar application (foliar application with water as control, foliar application with 0.5 and 1 mM of putrescine). Comparison of the means showed that the maximum amount of relative water content of flag leaf; chlorophyll index, stomatal conductance and quantum yield were obtained in full irrigation, application of mycorrhiza with Psedomunas and Flavobacterim and foliar application 1 mM of putrescine. Foliar application 1 mM of putrescine increased grain yield of about 8.5% in comparison with no application of putrescine. Also, the highest grain yield (799.44 and 746.38 g.m-2) were obtained with application of both Psedomunas and Flavobacterim, as well as application of mycorrhiza with Psedomunas and Flavobacterim, respectively under full irrigation conditions. In the meantime, the lowest (403.42 g.m-2) belongs to the treatment under irrigation withholding in booting stage, without the application of bio fertilizer. It seems that application of putrescine and bio fertilizers can increase grain yield of wheat under water limitation conditions as it improves some physiological traits.


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