Document Type : Research Paper


1 Corresponding Author, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:

2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:

3 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran. E-mail:

4 Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan and Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran. E-mail:

5 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran. E-mail:

6 Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:

7 Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:

8 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. E-mail:


In order to study the effects of late-season drought stress and foliar application of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and manganese sulfate (MnSO4) on physiological characteristics and yield of rapeseed cultivars, a factorial split-plot test has been conducted in a randomized complete blocks design for two cultivation years (2017-2019) in Karaj, Iran. The experimental treatments include two levels of irrigation (full irrigation (control) and withholding irrigation from flowering stage) and four levels of foliar application (control, ZnSO4, and MnSO4, separately, as well as their combined application) as factorial in the main plots, with rapeseed genotypes (Nima, Niloofar, and KS7) considered as subplots. Combined foliar application of zinc and manganese sulfate under full irrigation conditions increase the content of seed oil and soluble carbohydrates by 3% and 11%, respectively, compared to the control. On the other hand, withholding irrigation from flowering stage increases the percentage of seed oil and leaf proline content, compared to the control by 9% and 5.2%, respectively. Niloofar genotype has had the highest seed yield (5261 kg/ha) under full irrigation conditions, i.e. 9% and 11.8% higher than KS7 and Nima genotypes, respectively. Nima genotype with 3371 kg/ha has had the highest yield in the conditions of withholding irrigation. In general, in both irrigation treatments, simultaneous foliar application of zinc sulfate and manganese has had the greatest impact on the physiological traits of the studied genotypes, thus Niloofar genotype is recommended for full irrigation and Nima genotype for interrupted irrigation.


Aghaie, P., Tafreshi, S. A. H., Ebrahimi, M. A., & Haerinasab, M. (2018). Tolerance evaluation and clustering of fourteen tomato cultivars grown under mild and severe drought conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 232, 1-12.
Aghdam, A. M., Sayfzadeh, S., Shirani Rad, A. H, Valadabadi, S. A., & Zakerin, H. R. (2019). The assessment of water stress and delay cropping on quantitative and qualitative traits of rapeseed genotypes. Industrial Crops and Products, 131, 160-165.
Al-Barrak, K. M. (2006). Irrigation interval and nitrogen level effects on growth and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, 7(1), 87-102.
Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage. Fao, Rome, 300(9), D05109.
Alloway, B. J. (2008). Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. Published by IZA and IFA. Brussels, Belgium and Paris, France, 139.
Amoah, J. N., & Antwi-Berko, D. (2020). Comparative physiological, biochemical and transcript response to drought in sorghum genotypes. Biotechnology Journal International, 1-14.
Aram, S., Weisany, W., Daliri, M. S., & Mirkalaie, S. A. A. M. (2021). Phenology, physiology, and fatty acid profile of canola (Brassica napus L.) under agronomic management practices (direct seeding and transplanting) and zinc foliar application. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 21(2), 1735-1744.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts, polyphenoxidase in beta vulgaris. Plant hysiology, 24, 1-15.
Athukorala, A.D. (2021). Solubilization of micronutrients using indigenous microorganisms. In Microbial Technology for Sustainable Environment, 365-417. Springer, Singapore.
Babaeian, M., Tavassoli, A., Ghanbari, A., Esmaeilian, Y., & Fahimifard, M. (2011). Effects of foliar micronutrient application on osmotic adjustments, grain yield and yield components in sunflower (Alstar cultivar) under water stress at three stages. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(5), 1204-1208.
Balaji, S., Kalaivani, T., & Rajasekaran, C. (2014). Biosorption of zinc and nickel and its effect on growth of different Spirulina strains. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 42(4), 507-512.
Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39(1), 205-207.
Boroujerdnia, M., Bihamta, M., Alami Said, K., & Abdossi, V. (2016). Effect of drought tension on proline content, soluble carbohydrates, electrolytes leakage and relative water content of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Scientific Journal of Crop Physiology. I.A.U. Ahvaz. 8(29), 23-41. (In Persian).
Candan, N., Cakmak, I., & Ozturk, L. (2018). Zinc‐biofortified seeds improved seedling growth under zinc deficiency and drought stress in durum wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 181(3), 388-395.
Diedrick, K. (2010). Manganese fertility in soybean production. Pioneer Hi-Bred Agronomy Sciences, 20(14), 23-28.
El-Saadony, F. M., Nawar, D. A., & Zyada, H. G. (2017). Effect of foliar application with salicylic acid, garlic extract and proline on growth, yield and leaf anatomy of pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown under drought stress. Middle East. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(3), 633-650.
FAO. (2017). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT Data.
Farahani, S., Shahsavari, N., & Mohammadi Arasteh, M. (2020). Effect of potassium sulfate on the physiological characteristics of canola cultivars in late season drought stress conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 43(9), 1217-1228.
Faraji, J., & Sepehri, A. (2020). Exogenous nitric oxide improves the protective effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on growth, antioxidant system, and photosynthetic performance of wheat seedlings under drought stress. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 20(2), 703-714.
Ghorbani, P., Eshghi, S., Ershadi, A., Shekafandeh, A., & Razzaghi, F. (2019). The possible role of foliar application of manganese sulfate on mitigating adverse effects of water stress in grapevine. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 50(13), 1550-1562.
Hamzei, J., & Soltani, J. (2012). Deficit irrigation of rapeseed for water-saving: Effects on biomass accumulation, light interception and radiation use efficiency under different N rates. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 155, 153-160.
Hasan, M. M. U., Ma, F., Prodhan, Z. H., Li, F., Shen, H., Chen, Y., & Wang, X. (2018). Molecular and physio-biochemical characterization of cotton species for assessing drought stress tolerance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(9), 2636.
Heidari, N. (2015). Effects of drought stress on photosynthesis, its parameters and relative water content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Journal of Plant Research, 27(5), 829-839. (In Persian).
Jamshidi, N., Shirani Rad, A. H., Takht chin, F., Nazeri, P., & Ghafari, M. (2012). Evaluation of rapeseed genotypes under drought stress condition. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 6(3), 323-339. (In Persian).
Kalantar, A. S., & Dezfouli, A. S. (2019). Effects of foliar application of micronutrients on seed yield and oil quality of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Hyola401) under drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 21(3). (In Persian).
Karim, M. R., Zhang, Y. Q., Zhao, R. R., Chen, X. P., Zhang, F. S., & Zou, C. Q. (2012). Alleviation of drought stress in winter wheat by late foliar application of zinc, boron, and manganese. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 175(1), 142-151.
Khan, A. A. (2017). Canola yield and quality enhanced with sulphur fertilization. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 43(2), 113-119.
Khan, M. A., Ashraf, M. Y., Mujtaba, S. M., Shirazi, M. U., Khan, M. A., Shereen, A., Mumtaz, S., Agil Siddiqui, M. A., & Kaleri, G. M. (2010). Evaluation of high yielding canola type Brassica genotypes/mutants for drought tolerance using physiological indices as screening tool. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(6), 3807-3816.
Khayat Moghadam, M. S., Gholami, A., Shirani Rad, A. H., BaradaranFiroozabadi, M., & Abbasdokht, H. (2021a). The effect of Potassium silicate and late-season drought stress on the physiological characters of Canola. Journal of Crops Improvement. (In Persian).
Khayat Moghadam, M. S., Shirani Rad, A. H., Baradaran Firoozabadi, M., & Abbasdokht, H. (2021b). The impact of potassium silicate foliar application on some morphological, physiological and biochemical properties of rape genotypes under late seasonal drought stress. Journal of Plant Research. (In Persian).
Khayat Moghadam, M. S., Gholami, A., Shirani Rad, A. H., Baradaran Firoozabadi, M., & Abbasdokht, H. (2021c). Evaluation crop indices of canola spring genotypes in terminal drought stress conditions and foliar application of Potassium silicate. Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. (In Persian).
Khodabin, G., Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Z., Shirani Rad, A. H., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., & Bakhshandeh, E. (2020). The effect of withholding irrigation and foliar application of Zn and Mn on yield and eco-physiological characteristics of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 18(1), 85-100.
Khodabin, G., Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Z., Shirani Rad, A. H., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., Hashemi, S. M., & Bakhshandeh, E. (2021). Effect of late-season drought stress and foliar application of ZnSO4 and MnSO4 on the yield and some oil characteristics of rapeseed cultivars. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 22, 1-13.
Malakouti, M. J., & Homaee, M. (2004). Soil fertility of arid and semi-arid regions “Difficulties and solutions”. (2nd ed). Tarbiat Modarres University Press, 492.
Maleki, A., Naderi, A., Naseri, R., Fathi, A., Bahamin, S., & Maleki, R. (2013). Physiological performance of soybean cultivars under drought stress. Bulletin of nvironment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2(6), 38-44.
Mirzaee, M., Moieni, A., & Ghanati, F. (2013). Effect of drought stress on proline and soluble sugar content in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Iranian Journal of Biology. (In Persian).
Obaid, E. A., & Al-Hadethi, M. E. A. (2013). Effect of foliar application with manganese and zinc on pomegranate growth, yield and fruit quality. Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants, 5(1), 41-45.
Movahhedy-Dehnavy, M., Modarres-Sanavy, S. A. M., & Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, A. (2009). Foliar application of zinc and manganese improves seed yield and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown under water deficit stress. Industrial Crops and Products, 30(1), 82-92.
Qaswar, M., Hussain, S., & Rengel, Z. (2017). Zinc fertilisation increases grain zinc and reduces grain lead and cadmium concentrations more in zinc-biofortified than standard wheat cultivar. Science of the Total Environment, 605, 454-460.
Rashtbari, M., Hossein Ali, A., & Ghorchiani, M. (2020). Effect of vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost on growth and yield of canola under drought stress conditions. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 51(17), 2215-2222.
Rodriguez, D. D., Philips, D. B. S., Rodriguez-García, R., & Angulo-Sánchez, J. L. (2002). Grain yield and fatty acid composition of sunflower seed for cultivars developed under dry land conditions. Trends in new crops and new uses. American Society for Horticultural Science Press, Alexandria, 139-142.
Salehi-Lisar, S. Y., & Bakhshayeshan-Agdam, H. (2016). Drought stress in plants: causes, consequences, and tolerance. In Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants, 1, 1-16. Springer, Cham.
Sevanto, S. (2018). Drought impacts on phloem transport. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 43, 76-81.
Shahri, Z. B., Zamani, G. R., & Sayyari-Zahan, M. H. (2012). Effect of drought stress and zinc sulfat on the yield and some physiological characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Advances in Environmental Biology, 518-526.
Shahsavari, N. (2019). Effects of zeolite and zinc on quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) under late season drought stress. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 50(9), 1117-1122.
Tsonev, T., & Cebola Lidon, F. J. (2012). Zinc in plants-an overview. Emirates Journal of Food & Agriculture (EJFA), 24(4).
Waraich, E. A., Ahmad, R., Halim, A., & Aziz, T. (2012). Alleviation of temperature stress by nutrient management in crop plants: a review. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, 12(2), 221-244.
Weisany, W., Sohrabi, Y., Heidari, G., Siosemardeh, A., & Ghassemi-Golezani, K. (2011). Physiological responses of soybean (Glycine max L.) To zinc application under salinity stress. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(11), 1441-1447.
Xu, C., McDowell, N. G., Sevanto, S., & Fisher, R. A. (2013). Our limited ability to predict vegetation dynamics under water stress. New Phytologist, 200(2), 298-300.
Ye, Y., Medina-Velo, I. A., Cota-Ruiz, K., Moreno-Olivas, F., & Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. (2019). Can abiotic stresses in plants be alleviated by manganese nanoparticles or compounds? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 184, 109671.