Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.


Thanks to its palatability and high digestibility, chicory plays an effective role in increasing domestic animals’ products. In order to study the effect of sowing data and nitrogen fertilizer levels on some characteristics of chichory (Cichorium intybus L.), an experiment has been conducted in a split plot design, using randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan in 2016-2017. The factors include four sowing data (22 October, 5 November, 21 November, and 5 December) as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen (zero (non-application), 75, 150, and 225 kg / ha) as subplots. Results show that the sowing dates have only affected chlorophyll meter index, dry matter digestibility, and digestible energy, whereas nitrogen has had a significant effect on all studied traits. Increasing the application of nitrogen to 225 kg / ha increases plant height, chlorophyll meter index, leaf area, and branch number, not to mention both fresh and dry weights of the plant. The treatment of 225 kg / ha nitrogen raises the fresh weight of shoots and the percentage of forage protein by 66.35% and 6.44%, respectively, compared to non-application. But in these two traits, no significant difference has been observed among nitrogen application levels in different planting dates.  In this study, late planting date led to better conditions for most physiological, morphological yield, and quality characteristics. Accordingly, it is turned out that October 22 till November 5 sowing date with 150 kg ha-1 fertilizer has been the best treatment for chicory cultivation in Ahvaz.


Ansari Ardali, S., & AghaAlikhani, M. (2015). Effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer rate on forage yield and quality of cultivated amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 17(1), 35-36. (In Persian)
Balandari, A. & Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2011). Effect of planting date and density on developmental stages and shoot dry weight Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 9(3), 438-446. (In Persian)
Balandari, A., & Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2011). Effect of planting date and density on developmental stages and shoot dry weight (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.) chicory. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 9(3), 438-446. (In Persian)
Cox, W.J., & Cherney, D.J. (2001). Row spacing, plant density and nitrogen effects on corn silage. Journal of Agronomy, 93, 597-607.
Doaei, F., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Ghorbani, R. & Balandary, A. (2016). The Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Dwarf Chicory (Cichorium pumilum Jacq.). Journal of Horticultural Science, 30(4), 597-604. (In Persian)
Farhoudi, R. & Khodarahmpour, Z. (2017). The Effect of Sowing Date and Nitrogen fertilizer on Growth, Essential Oil and Essential Oil Compounds of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under Shoushtar Condition. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 15(4), 811-822. doi: 10.22067/gsc.v15i4.54396
Foaadedini, M., Seghatoleslami, M.J., & Moosavi, S.G.R. (2015). Effect of water deficit stress on traits of chichory (Cichorium intybus L.) in different planting dat. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31(3), 383-395. (In Persian)
Fonnesbeck, P.V., Clark, D.H., Garret, W.N., & Speth, C.F. (1984). Predicting energy utilization from alfalfa hay from the Western Region. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Animal Sciences, (Western Section), 35, 305-308
Ghanbari, A., Roshani, H., & Tavassoli, A. (2012). Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars. Journal of Crop Physiology, 6(2), 127-144. (In Persian)
Gholinezhad, E., & Sajedi, N.A. (2011). Effects of irrigation regimes, nitrogen rate and plant density on dry matter accumulation in sunflower (var. Iroflor). New Finding in Agriculture, 6(1), 83-100. (In Persian)
Golchin, A., Farahmand Mofard, F., & Khadem Moghadam Igdelou, N. (2020). Effect of Shadow and Different Levels of Nitrogen on Growth and Essential Oil Content of Peppermint. Journal of Agricultural Crops Production, 22(1), 103-117. (In Persian)
Heidari, M., Mohammadi, S. Dahmardeh, M. & Asgharipor, MR. (2015). Effects of nitrogen and arsenic on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutrient elements content in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Crop Production, 8(4), 105-120. (In Persian)
Hokmalipour, S. (2017). Evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and some agronomic and physiological traits of medicinal plant of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Plant Ecophysiology, 9(28), 133-144. (In Persian)
Imayavaramban, V., Thanunathan, R., Singaravel, J. & Manickam, G. (2002). Studies on the influence of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield parameters and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Crop Reserch (Hisar), 24(2), 309-313.
Izadi, Z., Ahmadvand, G., Esna-Ashari, M., & Piri, M. (2011). The effect of nitrogen and plant density on some growth characteristics, yield and essential oil in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8(5), 824-836. (In Persian)
Jafari, A., Connolly, V., Frolich, A., & Walsh, E.I. (2003). A note on estimation of quality parameters in perennial ryegrass by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 42, 293-299.
Javadi, H., Mousavi, S.G., & Saghatolslami, M. J.)2010(. The effect of irrigation levels and nitrogen fertilizer on some morphological characteristics, yield and water use efficiency of chicory. Medicinal Plants National Conference, Sari, Iran. (In Persian)
Karami, S., Hadi, H., Tajbakhsh Shishavan, M., & Modarres-Sanavy, S.A.M. (2018). Effect of different levels of nitrogen and zeolite on chlorophyll content, quantity and quality of amaranth forage under deficit irrigation stress. Journal of Agricultural Crops Production, 20(1), 67-84. (In Persian)
Keihani, A., & Modhej, A. (2014). Growth reaction of corn hybrids (Zea mays L.) to nitrogen fertilizer. Crop Physiology Journal, 21(6), 5-15. (In Persian)
Khamadi, F., Mesgarbashi, M., Hasibi, P., Farzaneh, M., & Enayatzamir, N. (2014). Influence of crop residue and nitrogen levels on nutrient content in grain wheat. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 108, 158-166. (In Persian)
Kiani, S., Siadat, S.A., Moradi Telavat, M.R., Abdali Mashhadi, A.R. & Sare, M. (2014). Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and quality of forage in intercropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 16(2), 77-90. (In Persian)
Li, G., & Kemp, P.D. (2005). Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): A review of its agronomy and animal production. Advances in Agronomy, 88, 187-222. DOI: 10.1016/S0065- 113(05)88005-8.
Mehardad Lomer, A., Ali-zade, V., Chogan, R. & Amiri, E. (2012). To investigate the reaction of corn hybrids to various levels of biological fertilizers containing nitrogen and amino acids. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science, 4(15), 1092-1100
Mehmood, N., Zubair, M., Rizwan, K., Muhammad Shahid, N.R., & Ahmad, V.U. (2012). Antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cichorium intybus seeds extract and various organic fractions. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 11(4), 1145-1151. (In Persian)
Moosavi, G.R. (2012). Effects of irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on yield, morphological traits and water use efficiency of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(31), 4647-4652. (In Persian)
Olsen, S.R., & Sommers, L.E. (1982). Phosphorus. In: A.L. Page (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis (pp. 403-431). Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Ramroudi, M., Mazaheri, D., Majnoon Hoseini, N., Hoseinzadeh, A., & Hoseini, S.M.B. (2010). The Effects of Cover Crops, Tillage Systems and Nitrogen Rates on Yield of Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Iranian Journal of field Crop Science, 41(4), 763-769. (In Persian)
Rastgo, B., Ebadie, A., & Parmoon, G. (2014).  Investigation the effect of using nitrogen on yield and storage compositions of Safflower grain (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Crop Physiology Journal, 21(6), 85-102. (In Persian)
Rayan, J.R., Estefan, G., & Rashid, A. (2001). Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. (2 edition). ICARDA. Syria.
Ritchie, J.C., Reeves, J.B., Krizek, D.T., Foy, C.D. & Gitz, D.C. (2006). Fiber composition of eastern gamagrass forage grown on a degraded, acid soil. Field Crops Research, 97, 181–176.
Roumani, A., Ehteshami, S.M.R. and Rabiei, M. (2015). Effect of seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on forage quality and yield of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) at the different values of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.  Plant Production Tecnology, 6(2), 89-99. (In Persian)
Roy, S., Arunachalam, K., Dutta, B.K, & Arunachalam, A. (2010). Effect of organic amendments of soil on growth and productivity of three common crops viz. Zea mays, (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Abelmoschus esculentus. Applied Soil Ecology, 45(2), 78-84.
Safikhani, S., Biabani, A., Faraji, A., Rahemi, A., & Gholizadeh, A. (2015). Response of some agronomic characteristic of Canola (Brassica napus L.) to nitrogen fertilizer and sowing date. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 9(3), 429-446. (In Persian)
Seghatoleslami, M.J., Mousavi, G.R., & Javadi, H. (2014). Chicory (Cichorium intybus) responses to nitrogen and plant density in Birjand, Iran. International Journal of Biosciences, 9(4), 56-61. (In Persian)
Shafea, L., Saffari, M., Emam, Y., & Mohammadinejad, G. (2011). Effect of nitrogen and zinc fertilizers on leaf zinc and chlorophyll contents, grain yield and chemical composition of Two Maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. Seed and Plant Production, 27(2), 235-246. (In Persian)
Solymani, A.A., Kamkar, B., Zinali, E., & Mokhtarpur, H. (2010). Effects of planting date and harvesting time on the quality characteristics of pear millet forage (Pennisetum glaucum). Journal of Crop Production, 3(4), 143-160. (In Persian)
Staal, M.F., Maatheusis, J.M., & Elzennga, T.M. (1991). Na+/K+ antiport activity in tonoplast vesicles from roots of the salt tolerant plantago maritina and the salt sensitive Plantago media. Plant Physiology, 82, 164-179.
Torabi Goudarzi, M., Bahonar, A.R., Raoofi, A., Akbari, H., & Haghi, G.H. (2010). Clinical evaluation of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) on cattle appetite and comparison with common product. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, 26, 275–282. (In Persian)
Vannier, H., & Marchal, J. (1992). Effect of mineral nutrition on mineral composition of leaves of Clemantin. Fruit Paris, 19, 32-36.
Varmzari, A., Khalili Mahaleh, J., Rushdie, M., & Harazmi, K. (2011). Influence of nitrogen application rate and method on yield and some properties of Sorghum. Journal of Research in Crop Sciences, 11(3), 66-53. (In Persian)
Vaseghi, A., Ghanbari, A., Heydari, M., & Davazdahemami, S. (2013). Effect of Sowing Date on Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Two Varieties of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Populations. Journal of Crop Eco physiology, 7(4), 373-392. (In Persian)
Vos, J., Vander Putten, P.E.L., & Birch, C.J. (2005). Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic maize (Zea mays L.). Field Crops Research, 93, 64-73.
Wajid, A., Ghaffar, A., Maqsood, M., Hussain, K. & Nasim, W. (2007). Yield response of maize hybrids to varying nitrogen rates. Pakistanian Journal of Agricultural Science, 44(2), 217-220.
Zarei, G., Shamsi Mahmoodabadi, H., Shamsi Mahmoodabadi, H., & Mohtaram, S.A. (2014). Effect of sowing date and plant density on yield of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Applied Field Crops Research, 27(104), 136-141. (In Persian) doi: 10.22092/aj.2014.101821