Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Science and Horticultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Science and Horticultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biosystem Mechanics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

5 Associate Professor, Department of Biosystem Mechanics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.


Biotic and abiotic stresses lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, damage to the host plant, reduction of its strength, and sometimes plant death. Cut flower rose is one of the most popular ornamental plants, suffering from crown gall caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In order to investigate the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and physiological characteristics in two cultivars of cut roses, A. tumefaciens inoculation was performed as a factorial design in a completely randomized design with three replications at the time of grafting by stenting method in Shahrekord university research greenhouse in September 2020. Treatments include contamination (Agrobacterium suspension inoculation and water inoculation) as the first factor and cultivar treatment (Angelina and Pearl) as the second factor. Three months after grafting, results show that the effect of cultivar/infection interaction has significant effect on ion leakage, proline, and guaiacol peroxidase at the level of one percent probability. The highest levels of soluble sugars, MDA and protein are observed in infected samples, 298.6 (μg/g Fw), 488.6 (µmolg-1 Fw) and 36.7 (mg/g Fw), respectively and the highest RWC and leaf area in healthy samples are 68.5% and 21.5 (cm2). In this study, inoculation of the crown gall lead to active oxygen species and oxidative stress, causing some changes in lipids, soluble sugars, and total protein.


Atson, E. (2019). Use of Amino Oligosaccharins and Alternaria Activated Protein in Management of Crown Gall and Enhancement of Growth in Roses. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection. College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. University of Nairobi. 86p.
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology, Academic press, Elsevier academic press. New York. 922 p.
Azadi, P., Beyrami Zadeh, E., & Otang Ntui, V. (2013). A simple protocol for somatic embryogenesis in Rosa hybrida L. cv. Apollo. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 88(4), 399-402.
Azari, A., Modares Sanavi, S.A.M., Askari, H. F., Ghanati, A., Naji, M., & Alizade, B. (2012). Effect of salinity stress on morphological and physiological of canola and turnip (Brassica napus and B. rapa). (In Persian, with English Abstract) Iran. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 14(2), 121-135.
Abei, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121-126.
Arun, K., Mali, P.C., & Manga, V.K. (2010). Changes in some phenolic compounds and enzyme activities of infected pearl millet caused by Sclerospora graminicola. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 2(1), 6-10.
Atwal, A.K., Kaur, R., Munshi, S.K., & Mann, A.P.S. (2004). Biochemical changes in relation to Alternaria leaf blight in Indian mustard. Plant Disease Research, 19, 57-59.
Bastam, N., Baninasab, B., & Ghobadi, C. (2012). Improving salt tolerance by exogenous application of salicylic acid in seedling of pistachio. Plant Growth Regulation, 69(3), 275-284.
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., & Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-207.
Bradford, M.M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein- dye binding. Analytical biochemical, 72(1), 248-254.
Chandrasekaran, M., Lee, J.M., Moon, Ye.B., Jung, S.M., Kim, J., Kim, J.W., & Chul Chun, S. (2019). Isolation and characterization of a virulent and virulent strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from rose crown gall in selected regions of South Korea. Journal Plants, 8(11), 452. https:// doi: 10.3390/plants8110452.
Cubero, J., Lastra, B.C., Salcedo, L., Diquer, J., & Lopez, M.M. (2006). Systemic movement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in several plant species. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 101(2), 412-421. https://
Chhabra, R., Kaur, S., Vij, L., & Gaur, K. (2020). Exploring Physiological and Biochemical Factors Governing Plant Pathogen Interaction: A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(11), 1650-1666.
Chen, P.S., Wang, L.Y., Chen, Y.J., Tzeng, K.C., Chang, S.C., Chung, K.R., & Lee, M.H. (2012). Understanding cellular defense in kumquat and calamondin to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 79, 1-12.
Danon, A., Miersch, O., Felix, G., Camp, R.G.L., & Apel, K. (2005). Concurrent activation of cell death regulating signaling pathways by singlet oxygen in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal, 41(1), 68-80. https:// doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313x.2004.02276.x.
Goodman, R.N., Kialy, Z., & Saitlin, M. (1967). The biochemistry and physiology of infections plant disease. David Van Nostrand Inc. p. 354.
Heath, R.L., & Packer, L. (1969). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast. Ι. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125(1), 189-198.
Irigoyen, J.J., Emerich, D.W., & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induce changes in concentration of proline and total soluble sugar in modulated alfalfa (Medicgo sativa) plants. Physiologia Plantarum, 84(1), 55-60.
Khizar, M., Haroon, U., Kamal, A., Inam, W., Chaudhary, H.J., Farooq, M., & Munis, H. (2021). Evaluation of virulence potential of Aspergillus tubingensis and subsequent biochemical and enzymatic defense response of cotton. Microscopy Research and Technique, 84(11), 2694-2701.
Khatun, S., Bandhopadhyay, P.K., & Chatterjee, N.C. (2009). Phenols with their oxidizing enzymes in defense against black spot of rose (Rosa centifolia). Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 23(1), 249-252.
Kumar, D., Al Hassan, M., Naranjo, M. A., Agrawal, V., Boscaiu, M., & Vicente, O. (2017). Effects of salinity and drought on growth, ionic relations, compatible solutes and activation of antioxidant systems in oleander (Nerium oleander L.). Public Library of Science, 12(9), e0185017. https://
Kumar, N., Ebel, R.C., & Roberts, P.D. (2011). H2O2 degradation is suppressed in kumquat leaves infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Scientia Horticulturae, 130(1), 241-247.
Murria, S., Kaur, N., Arora, A., & Arora, N.K. (2018). Biochemical characterization of superior seedless variety of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for resistance to anthracnose. Indian Phytopathology, 71(3), 399-405.
Mac-Adam, J.W., Nelson, C.J., & Sharp, R.E. (1992). Peroxidase Activity in the leaf elongation zone of tall fescue. Plant Physiology, 99(3), 872- 878.
Morkunas, I., & Ratajczak, L. (2014). The role of sugar signaling in plant defense responses against fungal pathogens. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36, 1607-1619.
Malhotra, S.K. (1993). Biochemical components of tomato genotypes in relation to Fusarium wilt. Indian journal of mycology and plant pathology, 23(3), 302-304.
Narwal, S.S., Bogatek, R., Zagdaneska, B.M., Samoietro, D.A., & Vattuone, M.A. (2009). Plant Biochemistry. Studium Press LLC, Texas. 632 p.
Naglaa, A.A., & Heba, I.M. (2011). Impact of secondary metabolites and related enzymes in flax resistance and or susceptibility to powdery mildew. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(5), 1073-1077.
Okushima, Y., Koizumi, N., Kusano, T., & Sano, H. (2000). Secreted proteins of tobacco cultured BY2 cells: identification of a new member of pathogenesis-related proteins. Plant Molecular Biology, 42(3), 479-488. https:// doi: 10.1023/a:1006393326985.
Pang, Y.Z., Wang, Z. H., Guo, S.S., Zhang, S.S., Zheng, L.W., Zhang, J.Z., & Guo, D.P. (2021). Verticillium dahliae reduces plant growth, constitutively induces antioxidant metabolism and gene expression in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. https://114,
Pérez-Pérez, J.G., Robles, J.M., Tovar, J.C., & Botía, P. (2009). Response to drought and salt stress of lemon ‘Fino 49’ under field conditions: Water relations, osmotic adjustment and gas exchange. Scientia Horticulturae, 122(1), 83-90. https://10.1016/j.scienta.2009.04.009.