Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.


In order to study the effect of cytokinin, gibberellin, and cycocle on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars under different irrigation regimes, a study was conducted as a split-split experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Kurdistan University in 2016. There, the irrigation factor at four levels: dryland, irrigation at booting stage, irrigation at booting + flowering and irrigation at booting + flowering + grain filling stages have served as the main plots, two wheat cultivars (Sirvan and Homa) as sub-plots, and levels of plant growth regulators foliar application including, i.e. control, gibberellin (100 µm), cytokinin (100 µm), and cycocel (3gr. lit-1) at the wheat stem elongation and grain filling stages as the sub-sub plots. Results show that in the foliar application during the stem stage, compared to the dryland treatment, yield increase in one, two, and three irrigation treatments have been 29%, 33%, and 43%, and at the grain filling stage; 22%, 28%, and 33%, respectively. Homa cultivar produced higher yield compared to Sirvan. In the foliar application during the stem stage, the highest grain yield (504 g m-2) belongs to application of three irrigation treatments as well as addition of cytokinin, and at the grain filling stage, the highest grain yield (477.6 g m-2) has been obtained from Homa cultivar under three times irrigation condition and cycocel consumption. Therefore, using even one stage irrigation and the application of cytokinin and cycocel can increase the grain yield of wheat.


Abou Rayya, M. S., Thanaa, S. M., & Nabila, E. K. (2015) Photosynthetic pigments and fruit quality of Manzanillo olive as affected by 6-benzyl adenine and studying the chemical constituents in leaves using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. International Journal of Chemical Technology Research, 8(6), 514-522.
Afyooni, D., Allahdadi, E., Akbari, G. A., & Najafian, G. (2014). Evaluation of tolerance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes to terminal drought stress based on agronomic traits. Journal of Agroecology, 5(1), 1-17. (In Persian).
Ahmed, H. G. M. D., Sajjad, M., Li, M., Azmat, M. A., Rizwan, M., Maqsood, R.H., & Khan, S.H. (2019) Selection criteria for drought-tolerant bread wheat genotypes at seedling stage. Sustainability, 11(9), 2584. DOI: 10.3390/su11092584
Asgher, M., Khan, M. I. R., Anjum, N. A., & Khan, N. A. (2015). Minimising toxicity of cadmium in plants-role of plant growth regulators. Protoplasma, 252(2), 399-413. DOI: 10.1007/s00709-014-0710-4
Awan, K.A., Ali, J., & Akmal, M. (2017). Yield comparison of potential wheat varieties by delay sowing as rainfed crop for peshawar climate. Sarhad Journal. of Agriculture, 33(3), 480–488. DOI:10.17582/journal.sja/2017/33.3.480.488
Dastfal, M., Barati, V., Navabi, F., & Haghighatnia, H. (2009). Effect of terminal drought stress on grain yield and its components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in dry and warm conditions in south of Fars province. Seed and Plant, 25(3), 331-346. (In Persian).
Diouf, I. A., Derivot, L., Bitton, F., Pascual, L., & Causse, M. (2018). Water deficit and salinity stress reveal many specific QTL for plant growth and fruit quality traits in tomato. Front Plant Science, 9, 279. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2018.00279
Djanaguiraman, M., Prasad, P.V.V., Kumari, J., & Rengel, Z. (2019). Root length and root lipid composition contribute to drought tolerance of winter and spring wheat. Plant and Soil, 439(1-2), 57-73. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-018-3794-3c
Dwivedi, S.K., Arora, A., Singh, S.D., Singh, G.P., Nagar. S., & Kumar, S. (2013). PGRs improve carbohydrate metabolism and yield attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water deficit condition. Journal of Wheat Research, 5(2), 12-17.
Ehdaie, B., Alloush, G.A., & Waines, J.G. (2008). Genotypic variation in linear rate of grain growth and contribution of stem reserves to grain yield in wheat. Field Crops Research, 106(1), 34-43. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2007.10.012
Emam, Y., & Seghatoeslami, M. J., (2005). Crop Yield, Physiology and Processes. Shiraz University Press, Shiraz. (In Persian).
Ghatei, A., Bakhshandeh, A., Abdali Mashhadi, A., Siadat, S. A., Alami Saeid, K., & Gharineh, M. (2015). Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels and Cytokinin Foliar Application on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat at Terminal Heat Stress Conditions in Ahwaz. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 5(16), 97-107. (In Persian).
Guo, Z., Shi, Y., Yu, Z., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Supplemental irrigation affected flag leaves senescence post-anthesis and grain yield of winter wheat in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Field Crops Research, 180, 100-109.  DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2015.05.015
Halim, Q., Emam, Y., & Shakeri, A. (2018). Evaluation of yield, yield components and stress tolerance indices in bread wheat cultivars under conditions Interruption of irrigation after flowering. Journal of Crop Production and Processing, 7(4), 121-134. (In Persian).
Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Rahman, A., Inafuku, M., Oku, H., & Fujita, M. (2018). Exogenous nitric oxide donor and arginine provide protection against short-term drought stress in wheat seedlings. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 24(6), 993-1004. DOI: 10.1007/s12298-018-0531-6.
Herzog, H. (1982). Relation of source and sink during grain filling period in wheat and some aspects of its regulation. Physiologia Plantarum, 56(2), 155-160. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1982.tb00318.x
Hönig, M., Plihalova, L., Husičkova, A., Nisler, J., & Doležal, K. (2018). Role of cytokinins in senescence, antioxidant defense and photo-synthesis. International Journal of Molecular Science, 19(12), 4045. DOI: 10.3390/ijms19124045.
Iqbal, N., Nazar, R., Khan, M. I., Masood, A., & Khan, N. A. (2011). Role of gibberellins in regulation of source-sink relations under optimal and limiting environmental conditions. Current Science, 100(7), 998-1007.
Kaur, G., & Asthir, B. (2017). Molecular responses to drought stress in plants. Biologia Plantarum, 61(2), 201-209. DOI: 10.1007/s10535-016-0700-9
Kaydan, D., Yagmur, M., & Okut, N. (2006). Effects of salicylic acid on the growth and some physiological characters in salt stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, 13(2), 114-119. DOI:10.21597/jist.498409
Khajeh, N., Emam, Y., Pakniyat, H., & Kamgar Haghighi, A.A. (2008). Interaction of Chlormequat Chloride (CCC) and Drought Stress on Growth and Grain Yield of Three inter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 39(1), 33-42(In Persian).
Khalilzadeh, R., Seyed Sharifi, R., & Jalilian, J. (2016). Antioxidant status and physiological responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to cycocel application and bio fertilizers under water limitation condition. Journal of Plant Interaction, 11(1), 130-137.
Latifkar, M., Mojaddam, M., & Nejad, T.S. (2014). The effect of application time of cycocel hormone and plant density on yield and yield components of wheat (Chamran cultivar) in Ahvaz weather conditions. International Journal of Biosciences, 10(4), 234-242. DOI:10.12692/ijb%2F4.10.234-242
Li, J. R., Yu, K., Wei, J.R., Ma, Q., Wang, B. Q., & Yu, D. (2010). Gibberellin retards chlorophyll degradation during senescence of Paris polyphylla. Plant Biology, 54(2), 395-399. DOI: 10.1007/s10535-010-0072-5
Li, W., Herrera-Estrella, L., & Tran, L. P. (2016). The Yin-Yang of cytokinin homeostasis and drought acclimation/adaptation. Trends in Plant Science, 21(7), 548-550. DOI:10.1016/j.tplants.2016.05.006
Mesgaran, M., Madani, K., Hashemi, H., & Azadi, P. (2016). Evaluation of Land and Precipitation for Agriculture in Iran. Working Paper 2, Stanford Iran 2040 Project, Stanford University, December, 2016,
Motazedi, S., Seifzadeh, S., HagParast, R., Zakerin, H., Jabbari, H., & daneshian, J. (2019). Assesment of Relationships between Seed Yield and Some Morphophysiological Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Rainfed and Supplementary Irrigation Conditions. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 13(49(1)), 1-24. DOI:10.30495/jcep.2019.664834. (In Persian).
Nagar, S., Ramakrishnan, S., Singh, V. P., Singh, G. P., Dhakar, R., Umesh, D. K., & Arora, A. (2015). Cytokinin enhanced biomass and yield in wheat by improving N-metabolism under water limited environment. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 20(1), 31-38. DOI: 10.1007/s40502-014-0134-3
Najafian, G., Ghandi, A., & Abadi, H. (2004). Screening for last season drought tolerance in wheat genotypes grown in Iran. African Agricultural Journal, 10(2), 370-381.
Osman, H. S. (2015). Enhancing antioxidant–yield relationship of pea plant under drought at different growth stages by exogenously applied glycine betaine and proline. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 60(2), 389-402. DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2015.10.004
Oweis, T., & Hachum, A. (2012). Supplemental irrigation, a highly efficient water-use practice. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Paolo, E.D., & Rinaldi, M. (2008). Yield response of corn to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in a Mediterranean environment. Field Crops Research, 105(3), 202-210. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2007.10.004
Peake, A.S., Bell, K.L., Fischer, R.A., Gardner, M., Das, B.T., Poole, N., & Mumford, M. (2020). Cultivar _ management interaction to reduce lodging and improve grain yield of irrigated spring wheat: Optimising plant growth regulator use, N application timing, row spacing and sowing date. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11,401. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2020.00401
Peltonen, J., & Nissila, E. (1996) Pre- and Postanthesis duration of two-rowed barleys in relation to stability of grain yield at high latitudes. Hereditas, 124(3), 217-222. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1996.00217.x
Pirasteh-Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., & Khaliq, A. (2016). Response of cereals to Cycocel application. Iran Agricultural Research, 35(1), 1-12. (In Persian).
Pirasteh, A. H., & Emam, Y. (2011). Yield and yield component responses of bread and durum wheat to PGRs under drought stress conditions in field and greenhouse. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science, 5(1), 1-17. (In Farsi).
Pirasteh-Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., & Ashraf, M. (2014). Impact of cycocel on seed germination and growth in some commercial crops under osmotic stress conditions. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 60(9), 1277-1289. DOI:10.1080/03650340.2013.879119
Pourmohammad, A., Shekari, F., & Soltaniband, V. (2014). Cycocel priming and foliar application affect yield components of rapseed (Brassica napus L.). Cercetari agronomice in Moldova, 47(1), 157. DOI: 10.2478/cerce-2014-0007
Ren, B., Zhu, Y., Zhang, J., Dong, S., Liu, P., & Zhao, B. (2016). Effects of spraying exogenous hormone 6-benzyl adenine (6-BA) after waterlogging on grain yield and growth of summer maize. Field Crops Research, 188, 96-104. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2015.10.016
Saeidi, M., Ahmadi, A., Postini, K., & Jahansooz, M. R. (2007). Evaluation of germination traits of different genotypes of wheat in osmotic stress situation and their correlations with speed of emergence and drought tolerance in Farm situation. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 11(1), 281-293. (In Persian).
Sasani, S.H., Jahansooz, M. R., & Ahmadi, A. (2004). The effects of deficit irrigation on water use efficiency, yield and quality of forage pearl millet. Proceeding of 4th International Crop Sience Congress, Brisbane, Australia, September 2004.
Sedaghat, M. E., & Emam, Y. (2017) . Effect of application of plant growth regulators on growth and grain yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under terminal drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 19(2), 132-147. (In Persian).
Shekoofa, A., & Emam, Y. (2008). Effect of nitrogen fertilization and plant growth regulators (PGRs) on yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Shiraz. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 10(2), 101-108. (In Persian).
Tatari, M., Ahmadi, M., & Abbasi Alikamar, R. (2012). Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Growth and Yield of Rainfed Wheat. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10(2), 448-455. (In Persian).
Wahbi, N., Emam, Y., & Pirasteh-Anosheh, H. (2017). Improvement of wheat growth and performance using claramocate chloride and salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in under water stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 15(1), 124-135. (In Persian). DOI:10.22067/gsc.v15i1.47584
Wang, H. Q. Li., Liu, H. S., & Xiao, L. T. (2009). Chlorocholine chloride application effects on photosynthetic capacity and photoassimilates partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 119(2), 113-116. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2008.07.019
Yang, D.Q., Dong, W.H., Luo, Y.L., Song, W.T., Cai, T., Li, Y., Yin, Y.P., & Wang, Z.L. (2018). Effects of nitrogen application and supplemental irrigation on canopy temperature and photosynthetic characteristics in winter wheat. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 156(1), 13-23. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859617000946
Yang, D.Q., Li, Y., Shi, Y. H., Cui, Z.Y., Luo, Y. L., Zheng, M. J., Chen, J., Li, Y. X., Yin, Y. P., & Wang, Z. L. (2016). Exogenous cytokinins increase grain yield of winter wheat cultivars by improving stay-green characteristics under heat stress. PLoS One, 11(5), e0155437. DOI: 10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155437
Yang, W. B., Wang, Z. L., Yin, Y. P., Li, W. Y., Li, Y. Chen, X.G., Wang, P. Chen, E.Y., Guo, J.X., Cai, T., & Ni, Y. L. (2011). Effects of spraying exogenous ABA or GA on the endogenous hormones concentration and filling of wheat grains. Scientia Agricultura Sinca, 44(13), 2673-2682. DOI: 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2011.13.005