Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Crop Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.


Weed infestation in arable lands is much more than one species. Thus, it is important to pay attention to the interaction of multy species of weeds. To study the effect of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv) interference on yield and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), an experiment has been done in Research field of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2017. It has been arranged in a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications with the experimental factors being three densities of redroot pigweed (0, 4, and 8 plants m-2) and three densities of barnyardgrass (0, 4, and 8 plants m-2). The highest grain yield (2230 kg ha-1) and essential oil content (2 %) are obtained at weed free plots. The density of 8 redroot pigweed plants m-2 at simultaneous interference with 0, 4, and 8 barnyard grass m-2 reduce grain yield by 30.1%, 62.9%, and 75.7%, and essential oil content by 24.5%, 26.2%, and 29.5%, respectively, compared with weed free plots. The coefficient of redroot pigweed competitivity is predicted to be higher than barnyardgrass, and the interference of 14.5 barnyardgrass plants m-2 or 7.7 redroot pigweed plants m-2 decreases fennel grain yield by 50%.


Akhtar, M., Mahmood, A., Ahmad, J., & Iqbal, K. (2000). Nitrogen uptake efficiency in heat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by nitrogen level and weed crop competition duration. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 3(6), 1002-1003.
Alizadeh, Y., Koochaki A., & Nasiri Mahallati, M. (2010). Evaluation of light absorption and efficiency in mixed cultivation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agricultural Ecology, 1, 94-104. (In Persian)
Baghitabr Firoozjayi, T. (2017). Evaluation of replacement intercropping series of green bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) with basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under weed competition. M.Sc. Thesis of Science Degree in Agronomy.160p.
Cousens, R. (1985). A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Annual Applied Biology, 107, 239-252.
Cown, P., Weaver, S.F., & Swanton, C.J. (1998) Interfrence between pigweed (Amaranthus spp), banyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science,46,533-539.
Damjanovic, B., Lepojevic Z., Zivcovic V., & Tolic, A. (2005) Extraction of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO2: Comparison with hyrodistillation. Food Chemistry, 92, 143-149.
Delfih, M.R., Sanavi, S.A.M., & Farhoudi, R. (2015) Effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems on yield and competition ability of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) against mallow (Malva spp.). Weed Research Journal, 7(2), 71-86. (In Persian).
Denines, S.R., Dille, J.A., Blinka, E.L., & Staggenbogr, S.A. (2004). Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and shatter cane (Sorghum bicolor) interference in corn. Weed Science, 52, 976-983.
Diyanat, M. & Baziar, S. (2021) Weed control on growth, yield, and physicochemical properties of tarragon. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 27(2), 144-156.
Fellows, G.H., & Roeth, F.W. (1992) Shatter cane (Sorghum bicolor L.) interference in soybean (Glycine max L.). Weed Science, 40, 68-73.
Gohil, B.S., Mathukia, R.K., Chhodavadia, S.K., Dobariya, V.K., & Solanki, R.M. (2015) Effect of weed management on growth, yield and weed indices and soil weed seed bank in Rabi fennel. The Bioscan, 10(1), 147-151.
Gohil, B.S., Mathukia, R.K., Dobariya, V.K., & Chhodavadia, S.K. (2014). Weed management and dynamics of weed seed bank in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 46 (4), 399-401.
Haizel, K., & Harper, J.L. )1973(. The effect of density and timing of removal on interference between barley, white mustard and wild oats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 1, 23-31.
Hamill, A.S., Weaver, S., Ferguson, G., Sikkema, P., Tardif, F., & Swanton, C.J. (2002). Economic benefit and potential risks of publication 75 (most efficacious approach) and Ontario HADSS (most economic approach) for weed management strategies in corn and soybeans. Ottawa, ON, Canada؛ Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Report, 33 p.
Horak, M. J., & Loughin, T.M. (2000). Growth analysis of four Amaranthus species. Weed Science, 48, 347-355.
Hossaini, S.M., Agha Alikhani M., Sefidkon, F., & Ghalavand, A. (2015) Vegetative yield and essential oil production of Savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm.) affected by organic fertilizer and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) competition. Proceeding 4th National Congress on Medicinal Plants, Tehran, Iran. 452: 81, 12–13 May 2015. (In Persian).
Hosseini, A., Rashed Mohassel, M., Nasiri Mahallati, M., & Haj Mohammadnia Qali Baf, K. (2008). Investigation of the effect of nitrogen content and duration of weed interference on yield and yield components of corn (Zea mays L.). Plant protection (agricultural sciences and industries), 23(1), 97-105.
Izadi Darbandi, A., Rashed Mohassel, M. H., & Nasiri Mahallati, M. (2003). Study of Competitive Effects of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Weeds on Bean Performance. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(1), 13-22.
Izadi Darbandi, E., & Rashed Mohassel, M. H. (2004). Determination of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Economic Damage Threshold in Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgare). Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 11 (3), 45-51. (In Persian)
Kenzevic, S., Weise, S.F., & Swanton, C.J. (1994). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retruflexus L.) interference in corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Science, 42, 568-573.
Khuram, M., Tanveer, A., Nadeem, M.A., Sarwar, N., & Shahzad, M. (2009). Critical period of weed crop competition in Fennel. Weed Science, 15(2-3), 171-181.
Kim, S., Marshall, E.J.P., Caseley, J.C., & Barain, P. (2006). Modelling interactions between herbicide dose and multiple weed species interference in crop–weed competition. Weed Research. An International Journal of Weed Biology, Ecology and Vegetation Management, 46, 175-184.
Kumar, R., Brar, A.S., Gill, B.S., & Kaur, T. (2015). Influence of weed management practices on weed dynamics and productivity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) 25th Asian pacific Weed Science for Sustainable Agriculture, Environment and Biodiversity. Hyderabad, India during 13-16 October, 2015: 407.
Mariotti. F., Tomé, D., & Patureau Mirand, P. (2008). Converting Nitrogen into Protein- Beyond 6.25 and Jones' Factors, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48(2), 177-184.
Meena, S.S., & Mehta, R.S. (2009). Effect of weed Management practices on weed indices, yield and economics of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Indian Journal of Weed Science, 41 (3& 4), 195-198.
Mirshakari, B. (2014a). Effect of weed interference (Chnopodium album L.) on leaf emergence rate and fennel yield (Foeniculum vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural Ecology, 6 (4), 788-797. (In Persian)
Mirshekari, B. (2014b) Competitive Effects of Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) on Growth Parameters, Seed Yield and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 31(3), 317-330. (In Persian).
Moechnig, M. J., Boerboom, C.M., & Binning, L. K. (2003). Growth interactions in communities of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Weed Science, 51, 363-370.
Nasrabadi, H., Armin, M., & Marvi, H. (2019) The effect of weed interference duration on yield and yield components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in irrigated and rainfed condition. Journal of Crop Production, 12(2), 157-170.
Olson, W.A., & Nalewaja, I. (2004). Effect of MCPA on 14C-diclofop uptake and translocation. Weed Science, 30, 59-63.
Omidbaigi, R. (2007). Production and Processing of Medicinal Plants. Astane Ghods Razavi, Mashhad, 378 p.
Patel, S.M., Amin, A.U., Patel, S.P., & Patel.A. (2017). Influence of weed management practices on weeds, yield, quality and economics of Fennel. International Journal of Seed Species, 7(2), 45-49.
Putnam, D.H., Herbert, J.J., & Vargas, A. (1985). Intercropped corn-soybean density studies. I. yield complementary and protein. Journal Experimental Agriculture, 21(3), 41-51.
Rahimi, M.R., Yousefi, A.R., Jamshidi, Kh., & Pouryousef, M. (2015) The Effect of Integrated Weed Management on Yield and Yield Components of Fennel. Journal of Crop Improvement, 17(4), 1087-1100. (In Persian).
Rahimian, H., & Shariati, Sh. (1999). Modeling of Weed Competition and Crop Plants. Agricultural Education Publishing. 294 pages
Rather, M., Dar, B. A., Sofi, S.N., & Qurishi, M.A. (2016). Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety. Arabian Journal Chemistry, 9(2), 1574–1583.
Sarabi, W., Nasiri Mahallati, M., Nezami, A., & Rashedmohsel, M.H. (2010). The Effect of Relativity Time and (Chenopodium album L.) on Seed and Biological Performance of Seed Corn (Zea mays L.). Iranian Agricultural Research, 8(5), 862-870. (In Persian).
Sarwar, M. (1994). Studies on wild oat interferences, nutrient competition and economic threshold level in wheat. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Satvati Niri, S., Qolipouri, A., Tobeh, A., Jama’ati, S., Ochi, M., & Rahimzadeh, F. (2015) Determining critical period for weeds control in sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Cumhuriyet Science Journal, 36(3), 2057-2064.
Seyyedi, S.M., Rezvani Moghaddam P., & Nasiri Mahallati M. (2016) Weed competition periods affect grain yield and nutrient uptake of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.). Horticultural Plant Journal, 2(3), 172-180.
Street, J.E., Snipes, C.E., Mcguire, J.A., & Buchanan, G.A. (1985). Competition of a binary weed system with cotton (Gossypium hirsitum). Weed Science, 33, 807-809.
Tolerr, J.E., Guice, B., & Murdock, E.C. (1996). Interference between johnson grass, pigweed and soybean. Weed Science, 44, 331-338.
Wilson, B.J., Wright, K.J., Brain, P., Clements, M., & Stephens, E. (1995). Predicting the competitive effects of weed and crop density on weed biomass, weed seed production and crop yield in wheat. Weed Research, 35(4), 265-278.
Yousefi, A.R., Alizadeh, H., Baghestani, M.A., & Rahimian, H. (2008) A Model for Multiple Weed Competition of Common Cocklebur and Redroot Pigweed in Soybean. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 4(2), 69-78. (In Persian). 
Yousefi, A.R., Alizadeh, H., Baghestani, M.A., & Rahimian, H. (2009) Effect of Multispecies Interference of Common Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and Red Root Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) on Soybean (Glycine max) Yield and Yield Components. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 40(2), 169-176. (In Persian).
Zarei, M., Armin, M., & Hokmabad, M. (2020) Weed interference duration effect on yield and yield components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in conventional and organic conditions. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 52(4), 621-638.