Document Type : Research Paper


1 Expert of Irrigation and Drainage, The Complex of Fruit orchards of Cultivated Company and Industry and Animal Husbandry, Moghan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran.

3 Research Assistant Professor of Research Center of Agricultural Training and Natural Resources, Moghan-Ardabil, Iran.

4 Former Ph.D. Student, Agricultural Jihad Organization, Ardebil, Iran.


In order to investigate the effect of deficit irrigation on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of wheat (Triticum asetivum L.) Morvareed cultivar, an experiment has been carried out with three main treatments including surface drip irrigation (TS), subsurface drip irrigation (TSS), and Furrow irrigation (F), as well as three submain treatments containing irrigation levels 50% (I1), 75% (I2), and 100% (I3) of the plant water requirement. It has taken place in the research farm of Ardebil Agricultural Research and Training Center in Moghan region during 2016-2017. The experiment is conducted as split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results show that the highest 1000-grain weight, harvest index and number of tillers per unit area are obtained with 0.05 kg, 42% and 448.56 in I3 and protein content with 9.56% in I1, respectively. Also, the highest grain yield (7122.33 kg ha-1) is obtained from the TS with irrigation level of I3 (no significant difference between I3 and I1). Meanwhile, the highest water productivity based on grain yield with 1.81 kg m-3 is obtained from the treatment of F with I1. The lowest grain yield with 2866.67 kg ha-1 and water productivity based on grain yield with 1.05 kg m-3 belongs to F with irrigation levels of I1 and I3, respectively. Therefore, the surface drip (TS) with 75% (I2) and 100% (I3) of crop water requirement in conditions of water deficiency and no-water-deficiency, respectively, can be considered as optimum methods for wheat production in the Moghan region.


Ahmadi, K., Ebadzadeh, H.R., Hatami, F., Abdshah, H., & Kazemiyan, A. (2019).  Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Deputy of Planning and Economic of Information Technology and Communication Center, Agricultural statistics of the crop year 2017-2018, 1st vol. Tehran, Iran. 89 pp. (In Persian)
Ali, M.H., Hoque, M.R., Hassan, A.A., & Khair, A. (2007). Effects of deficit irrigation on yield, water productivity and economic returns of wheat. Agricultural water management, 92, 151-161.
Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper. NO. 56, Rome, Italy.
Eidizadeh, K., Ebrahimpour, F., & Ebrahimi, M. A. (2016). Effect of different irrigation regimes on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in Ramin climate. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 9, 29-36. (In Persian)
Emami, A. (1996). Methods of plant analysis. Technical Journal No. 982. Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran 367 pp. (In Persian)
English, M. J., & Raja S. N. (1996). Perspectives on deficit irrigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 10, 91-106.
Fang, Q., Zhang, Y., Shao, L., Chen, S., & Sun, H. (2018). Assessing the performance of different irrigation systems on winter wheat under limited water supply. Agricultural Water Management, 196, 133-143.
Farmahini Farahani, M., Mirzakhani, M., & Sajedi, N. A. (2017). Effect of water absorbent materials on some agronomic traits and seed protein of wheat under water deficit stress. Crop Production Technology, 17, 17-37. (In Persian)
Gaiser, T., Perkons, U., Kupper, P.M., Puschmann, D. U., Peth, S.,  Kuatz. T., Pfeifer, J., Ewert, F., Horn, R., & Kopke, U. (2012). Evidence of improved water uptake from subsoil by spring wheat following lucerne in a temperate humid climate. Field Crops Research, 126, 56-62.
Hanks, R.J. (1974). Model for predicting plant yield as influenced by water use 1. Agronomy Journal, 66, 660-665.
Ibragimov, N., Evett, S.R., & Esanbekov, Y. (2017). Water use efficiency of irrigated cotton in Uzbekistan under drip and furrow irrigation. Agricultural water management, 90, 112-120.
Jha, S.K., Gao, Y., Liu, H., Huang, Z., Wang, G., Liang, Y., & Duan, A. (2017). Root development and water uptake in winter wheat under different irrigation methods and scheduling for North China. Agricultural Water Management, 182, 139-150.
Keykhaei, F., & Ghanji Khorram Del, N. (2016). Effects of deficit irrigation with tow border and furrow methods on Hammon wheat yield and water use efficiency. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 30, 1-11. (In Persian)
Kumarjha, S., Ramatshaba, T. S., Wang, G., Liang, Y., Liu, H., Gao, Y., & Duan, A. (2019). Response of growth, yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat to different irrigation methods and scheduling in North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management, 217, 292-302.
Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., Xi, L., Liao, Y., & Han, J. (2019). Ridge-furrow planting promotes wheat grain yield and water productivity in the irrigated sub-humid region of China. Agricultural Water Management,
Mahmood, F., Wanga, G., Gaoa, Y., Lianga, Y., Chena, J., Si, Z., Ramatshabaa, T. S., M. Zaina, M., Rahmana, S., & Duana, A. (2019). Nitrous oxide emission from winter wheat field as responded to irrigation scheduling and irrigation methods in the North China Plain. Agricultural water management, 222, 367-374.
Meena, R. P., Karnam, V., Tripathi, S.C., Ankita, J., Sharma, R.K., & Singh, G.P. (2019). Irrigation management strategies in wheat for efficient water use in the regions of depleting water resources. Agricultural water management, 214, 38-46.
Mingming, Z., Bao-di1, D., Yun-zhou1, Q., Chang-hai, S., Hong, Y., Ya-kai, W., & Meng-yu, L. (2018). Yield and water use responses of winter wheat to irrigation and nitrogen application in the North China Plain. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(5), 1194-1206.
Mosaffa, H. R., & Sepaskhah, A. R. (2018). Performance of irrigation regimes and water salinity on winter wheat as influenced by planting methods. Agricultural water management. From
Mostafa, H., ElNady, R., Awad, M., & ElAnsari, M. (2017). Drip irrigation management for wheat under clay soil in arid conditions. Agricultural water management, From
Mugabe, F.T., & Nyakatawa, E. Z. (2000). Effect of deficit irrigation on Wheat and opportunities of growing Wheat on residual soil moisture in southeast Zimbabwe. Agricultural Water Management, 46, 111-119.
Nasiri, Y., Shakiba, M. R., Alyari, H., Valizadeh, M., & Dabagh Mohammadi-nasab, A. (2008). Influence of postpolination water deficit stress and nitrogen on yield, yield components and grain protein content of barley (cv. Valfajr). Agricultural Sciences, 18(4), 143-153. (In Persian)
Research Center of the Islamic Consultative Assembly. (2017). Investigating the water crisis and its consequences in the country. Deputy of Infrastructure and Production Research, Infrastructure Studies, Subject Code: 250, Serial Number: 15608. (In Persian)
Reynolds, M., Foulkes, M. J., Slafer, G. A., Berry, P., Parry, M. A. J., Snape, J. W., & Angus, W. J. (2009). Raising yield potential in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 1899-1918.
Sepaskhah, A. R., Tavakko;I, A. R., & Mosavi, F. (2006). Preciples and application of deficit irrigation. Publications of Iranian national committee on irrigation and drainage, 1st Ed. 288 pp. (In Persian)
Shahbazpanahi, B., Paknejad, F., Habibi, M., Sadeghishoa, M., Nasiri, M., & Pazaki, A. (2012). Evaluation of irrigation regimes on yield and yield componente in different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, 8(2), 197-185. (In Persian)
Si, Z., Zaina, M., Faisal, M., Wanga, G., Gaoa, Y., & Duana, A. (2020). Effects of nitrogen application rate and irrigation regime on growth, yield and water-nitrogen use efficiency of drip-irrigated winter wheat in the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management, 231, 106002.
Tahany, N., Samiha, O., Oussms, M., & Magdi. T.A. (2015). Cropsyst model for wheat under deficit irrigation using sprinkler and drip irrigation in sandy soil. Journal of water and land development, 26 pp. 56-64.
Tari, A.F. (2016). The effects of different deficit irrigation strategies on yield, quality, and water-use efficiencies of wheat under semi-arid conditions. Agricultural water management, 167, 1-10.
Torknezhad, A., Aghaee-Sarbarzeh, M., Jafari, H., Shirvani A., Roeentan R., Nemati A., & Shahbazi Kh. (2006). Study and economic evaluation of drip (tape) irrigation method on wheat compared to surface irrigation in water limited areas. Research and construction in agriculture and horticulture, 72, 36-44. (In Persian)
Xu, X., Zhanga, M., Lia, J., Liu, Z., Zhao, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhou, S. T.A., & Wang, Z. (2018). Improving water use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat by optimizing irrigations in the North China Plain. Field Crops Research, 221, 219-227.