Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

3 Research Assistant Professor, Department of Seed Improvement, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.


In order to investigate the effect of different weed control managements on emergence characteristics and morphological growth of rice seedlings in the seedling stage in a direct seeding system, a field experiment has been conducted in the 2020 growing season, Babolsar, Bahnemir, Iran. Being a factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications, the experiment employs the following treatments: Shiroudi, Khazar, and Hashemi cultivars as well as various weed control management in five levels of seed coating with calcium chloride, seed coating with potassium chloride, weeding, chemical control, and control. The interaction effect of weed management and cultivar shows that coating the seeds with calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and weeding cuts the dry weight of grasses by 55%, 68%, and 85% in Shiroudi cultivar, by 79%, 63%, and 54% in Khazar cultivar, and 30%, 58%, and 35% in Hashemi cultivar, respectively, compared to the control. The maximum percentage of germination with 99%, 97%, and 95% belong to seed coating with potassium chloride, calcium chloride, and weeding in Shiroudi cultivar, respectively. The highest germination rate could be observed in potassium and calcium chloride seed coating treatments and weeding. The lowest density of broadleaf weeds with 0.91 plants m-2 is obtained in Shiroudi cultivar and by managing the seeds coating of this cultivar with calcium chloride. The highest seedling length and weight vigor indices are obtained with 3559 and 137 in Shiroudi cultivar under weeding management, respectively. Results show that seed coating improves the seed yield of rice cultivars.


Abbasdokht, H., Makarian, H., Gholami, A., & Rahimi, M. (2012). The study of integrated weed management (IWM), emphasizing the effect of seed priming on yield and yield components of maize (Zea mayz L.). Weed Research Journal, 4(2), 63-76. (In Persian).
Anwar, M.P., Juraimi, A.S., Puteh, A., Selamat, A., Rahman, M.S., & Samedani, B. (2011). Seed priming influences weed competitiveness and productivity of aerobic rice. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Soil & Plant Science, 62(6), 499-509.
Allard, J.L., Kon, K.F., Morishima, Y., & Kotzian, R. (2005). The crop protection industry’s view on trends in rice crop establishment in Asia and their impact on weed management techniques. In: Rice is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the World Rice Research Conference, 4-7 November 2004, Tsukuba, Japan, Pp. 205-208.
Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., & Tabassum, R. (2005). Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigour enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 33, 623-628.
Bewley, J.D., & Black, M. (1994). Seeds physiology of development and germination. Plenum Press, New York. 445 p.
Broadley, M.R., White, P.J., Hammond, J.P., Zelko, L., & Lux, A. (2007). Zinc in plants. New Phytologist, 173, 677-702.
Busi, R., Nghia, K.N., Chauhan, B.S., Francesco, V., Maurizio, T., & Stephen, B.P. (2017). Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops? Pest Management Science, 73, 71-77.
Chauhan, B.S., & Johnson, D.E. (2011). Row spacing and weed control timing affect yield of aerobic rice. Field Crops Research, 121, 226-231.
Dhage, S.S., & Anishetter, S. (2020). Seed priming: An approach to enhance weed competitiveness and productivity in aerobic rice: A review. Agricultural Reviews, 41, 179-182.
Du, B., Luo, H., He, L., Zheng, L., Liu, Y., Mo, Z., Pan, S., Tian, H., Duan, M., & Tang, X. (2019). Rice seed priming with sodium selenate: Effects on germination, seedling growth, and biochemical attributes. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 4311. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40849-3.
Farzaneh, S., Shamloeian, M., Shahrifi, R.S., & Kadihodad, S. K. (2019). Effect of seed coating with organic fertilizers on emergence and seedling growth of sugar beet. Crop Improvement (Journal of Agricultural Crops Production), 21(1), 43-59. (In Persian).
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., & Wahid, A. (2006). Priming of field-sown rice seed enhances germination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield. Plant Growth Regulation, 49, 285-294.
Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., & Ahmad, N. (2007). Improving the performance of transplanted rice by seed priming. Plant Growth Regulation, 51, 129-137.
Frooq, M., Siddique, K.H.M., Rehman, H., Aziz, T., Lee, D.J., & Wahid, A. (2011). Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil and Tillage, 111, 87-98.
Farooq, M., Ullah, A. Rehman, A., Nawaz, A., Nadeem, A., Wakeel, A., Nadeem, F., & Siddique, K.H.M.  (2018). Application of zinc improves the productivity and biofortification of fine grain aromatic rice grown in dry seeded and puddled transplanted production systems. Field Crops Research, 216, 53-62.
Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). (2020). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Database; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome. Available online:
Frodel, S., Sadrabadi, R., & Nabavi Kalat, S.M. (2011). Effect of seed priming on seedling growth of sesame under salt stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 9(3), 535-543. (In Persian).
Gallardo, K., Job, C., Groot, S.P.C., Puype, M., Demol, H., & Job, D. (2001). Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed germination and priming. Plant Physiology, 126, 835-848.
Halmer, P. (2006). Seed technology and seed enhancement. In XXVII International Horticultural Congress-IHC August 13-19, 2006: International Symposium on Seed Enhancement and Seedling Production, 771, 17-26.
Hara, Y. (2013). Suppressive effect of sulfate on establishment of rice seedlings in submerged soil may be due to sulfide generation around the seeds. Plant Production Science, 16, 50-60.
Hasan, M.N., Salam, M.A., Chowdhury, M.M.L., Sultan, M., & Islam, N. (2016). Effect of osmopriming on germination of rice seed. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 41(3), 451-460.
Hussain, S., Khan, F., Cao, W., Wu, L., & Geng, M. (2016). Seed priming alters the production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates in rice seedlings grown under sub-optimal temperature and nutrient supply. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1-14.
Hussain, S., Khaliq, A., Tanveer, M., Matloob, A., & Hussain, H.A. (2018). Aspirin priming circumvents the salinity‑induced effects on wheat emergence and seedling growth by regulating starch metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 1-12,
Imran, M., Mahmood, A., Romheld, V., & Neuman, G. (2013). Nutrient seed priming improves seedling development of maize exposed to low root zone temperatures during early growth. European Journal of Agronomy, 49, 141-148.
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). (2020). International Rice Research Institute. Available online:
Jalali, A.M., & Salehi, F. (2013). Sugar beet yield as affected by seed priming and weed control. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 59(2), 281-288.
Jiriaie, M. Fateh, E., & Aynehband, A. (2014). Evaluation of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum effect on some characteristics of wheat cultivars in stablishment stage. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 7(1), 45-62. (In Persian).
Juarimi, A.S., Anwar, M.P., Selamat, A., Puteh, A., & Man, A. (2012). The influence of seed priming on weed suppression in aerobic rice. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 18, 257-264.
Mahajan, G., Sarlach, R.S., Japinder, S., & Gill, M.S. (2011). Seed priming effects on germination, growth and yield of dry direct-seeded rice. Journal of Crop Improvement, 25, 409-417.
Materu, S.T., Shukla, S., Sishodia, R., Tarimo, A., & Tumbo, S. (2018). Water use and rice productivity for irrigation management alternatives in Tanzania. Water, 10, 1-15.
Mortimer, A.M., Riches, C.R., Mazid, M., Pandey, S., & Johnson, D.E. (2008). Issues related to direct seeding of rice in rainfed cropping systems in northwest Bangladesh. In Direct Seeding of Rice and Weed Management in the Irrigated Rice-Wheat Cropping System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains; Singh, Y., Singh, V.P., Chauhan, B.S., Orr, A., Mortimer, A.M., Johnson, D.E., Hardy, B., Eds.; International Rice Research Institute, Los Baˇnos, Philippines, and Directorate of Experiment Station, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology: Pantnagar, India, Pp. 272.
Nadimi Dafrazi, M.H., Esfahani, M., & Alami, A. (2018). Effect of transplanting time on grain yield, yield components and remobilization of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Roudbar region. Cereal Research, 7(4), 471-483. (In Persian).
Nasiri Dehsorkhi, A. (2016). Effects of ultrasonic waves, seed priming and herbicide application on growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) and weeds control. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahrood University of Technology. (In Persian).
Nawaz, A., Farooq, M., Ahmad, R., Basra, S.M.A., & Lal, R. (2017). Seed priming improves stand establishment and productivity of no till wheat grown after direct seeded aerobic and transplanted flooded rice. European Journal of Agronomy, 76, 130-137.
Nazari, Sh., Aboutalbian, M.A., & Golzardi. F. (2016). Investigation of hydropriming and osmopriming with ZnSO4 effects on characteristics germination of three winter rapeseed cultivars. Iranian Journal of Seed Research, 3(1), 39-58. (In Persian).
Nazari, Sh. (2018). Evaluation of seed priming potential for offsetting the effects of delayed sowing date of some winter rapeseed cultivars in Karaj. PhD. Thesis in Agronomy Science the Field of Crop ecology. Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran, 222p. (In Persian).
Pal, S., Banerjee, H., & Mandal, N.N. (2009). Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted Kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Plant Protection Sciences, 1(1), 31-33.
Pouramir, F., Yaghoubi, B., & Aminpanah, H. (2020). Efficacy of new herbicides triafamone + ethoxysulfuron, flucetosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl on paddy fields weed control. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 50(40), 127-136.
Pedrini, S., Merritt, D.J., Stevens, J., & Dixon, K. (2017). Seed coating: Science or marketing spin? Trends in Plant Science, 22(2), 106-116.
Priya, T.S.R., Nelson, A.R.L.E., Ravichandran, K., & Antony, U. (2019). Nutritional and functional properties of coloured rice varieties of South India: A review. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6, 1-11.
Rao, A.N., Johnson, D.E., Sivaprasad, B., Ladha, J.K., & Mortimer, A.M. (2007). Weed mamnagment in direct seeded rice. Advances in Agronomy, 93, 153-255.
Rehman, H.U., Kamran, M., Basra, S.M.A., Afzal, I., & Farooq, M. (2015). Influence of seed priming on performance and water productivity of direct seeded rice in alternating wetting and drying. Rice Science, 22(4), 189-196.
Rahman, M.M.D. (2019). Potential benefits of dry direct seeded rice culture: A review. Fundamental and Applied Agriculture, 4(2), 744-758.
Rajabian, M., Asghari, J., Ehteshmai, S.M.R., & Yaghoubian, B. (2017). Response of landrace and improved genotypes of rice to weed competition in direct-seeded system. Iranian Journal of Weed Science, 13(1), 79-96. (In Persian).
Shivankar, R.S., Deore, D.B., & Zode, N.G. (2003). Effect of pre-sowing seed treatment on establishment and seed yield of sunflower. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 20, 299-300.
Simma, B., Polthance, A., Goggi, A.S., Siri, B., Promkhambut, A., & Caragea, C. (2017). Wood vinegar seed priming improves yield and suppresses weedsin dryland direct-seeding rice under rainfed production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 37, 55-65.
Singh, S.J.K., Ladhab, R.K., Guptaa, L., & Bhushana, A.N. (2008). Weed management in aerobic rice systems under varying establishment methods. Crop Protection, 27, 660-671.
Soltani, A., & Madah, V. (2010). Simple applied programs for education and research in agronomy. Iranian Society of Ecologic. Agric. Tehran. Iran. Pp. 80. (In Persian).
Soltani, E., Galeshi, S., Kamkar, B., & Akramghaderi, F. (2009). The effect of seed aging on seedling growth as affected by environmental factors in wheat. Research Journal Environmental Sciences, 3, 184-192. (In Persian).
Soltani, E., & Farzaneh, S. (2014). Hydrotime analysis for determination of seed vigour in cotton. Seed Science and Technology, 42, 260-273. (In Persian).
Shekhawat, K., Rathore, S.S., & Chauhan, B.S. (2020). Weed management in dry direct-seeded rice: A review on challenges and opportunities for sustainable rice production. Agronomy, 10, 1-19.
Subedi, R., Maharjan, B.K., & Adhikari, R. (2015). Effect of different priming methods in rice. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental, 16, 156-160.
Taghi Zoghi, Sh., Soltani, E., Allahdadi, I., & Sadeghi, R. (2018). The effects of seed coating treatments on seedling emergence and growth of rapeseed and the growth of pathogenic fungi. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 5(3), 103-115. (In Persian).
Varier, A., Vari, A.K., & Dadlani, M. (2010). The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science, 99, 450-456.
Wang, H.Y., Chen, C.L., & Sung, J.M. (2003). Both warm water soaking and soild priming treatments enhance anti - oxidation of bitter gourd seeds germinated at sub optimal temperature. Seed Science and Technology, 31, 47-56.
Wang, S., Wang, E., Wang, F., & Tang, L. (2012). Phenological development and grain yield of canola as affected by sowing date and climate variation in the Yangtze River Basin of China. Crop and Pasture Science, 63, 478-488.
Xu, L., Li, X., Wang, X., Xiong, D., & Wang, F.  (2019). Comparing the grain yields of direct-seeded and transplanted rice: A meta-analysis. Agronomy, 9, (11), 1-15.
Zheng, M., Tao, Y., Hussain, S., Jiang, Q., Peng, S., Huang, J., Cui, K., & Nie, L. (2016). Seed priming in dry direct-seeded rice: Consequences for emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events under drought stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 78, 167-178.