Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student, Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran and Research Department, South Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Birjand, Iran

2 Professor, Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Karaj

3 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Institute(SWRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran


The Potential Climatic Water Productivity (PCWP) is an important indicator to quantify the effect of intrinsic factors on physical water productivity. The crop calendar is one of the important factors affecting this index. Considering the importance of maize farming and the necessity of improving water productivity, PCWP index has been investigated for eight agronomic calendars and five maize farms between 2015 and 2016. Crop calendars were extracted from available official sources and expert meetings. The PCWP components are determined from the FAO Growth Model (yield) and the standard FAO Penman-Monteith method (evapotranspiration). The mean PCWP for maize forage in the second crop cultivation has increased by 23%, compared to the first cultivation; therefore, the use of second cultivation calendars is recommended in regard to the promoting water productivity. In spite of a 13.7% increase in PCWP in the second maize-grain cultivation, the use of the first cultivation calendars is recommended. Due to changes in water productivity (WP) and its components, water allocation and irrigation scheduling based on ETc appropriate to the crop calendar is essential. However, WP based ETc and actual yield are not appropriate for correct comparison, analysis, and crop calendar selection, so it is necessary to use PCWP values based on climatic potential production (CPP) under water conditions (IPP) and ETc.


Ahmadi Adli, R. (2007). Determination potential evapotranspiration of corn by lysimetric method in Moghan. Final Report of the Research Project. Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Karaj, Iran. 33 pp. (In Persian)
Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes. D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper n. 56. FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 pp.
Anonymous. (2002). Net irrigation requirements of crops and garden (NetWat software). Ministry of  Agriculture Jihad and Iranian Meteorological Organization.
Anvari, K., Arefi, S., & Fateh, M. (2012) . Efeect of planting date on seed yield and yield components of corn differenthybrent hybrids. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 3(4), 368-377. (In Persian)
Azizi Zohan, A. A.,  liaghat, A. M., & Shahabifar, M. (2020). Definition and Determination of Water Productivity Management Index (WPMI) and its application for forage maize in Moghan plain. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture (Soil and Water Sci), 33(4), 519-534. (In Persian)
Azizi Zohan, A. A.,  Shahabifar, M., Ebrahimi pak, N. A., Razavi, R., Ghalebi, S., Sarei Tabrizi, M., Toluei, R., & Piri, R. (2014). Evaluation of wheat water use efficiency in Iran and worldwide .First National Conference on Soil and Water Management in Wheat Production. Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)
Bafkar, A., Farhadi, B., & Karimi, A. R. (2013). Estimation of crop coefficients(Kc) of grain corn S.C. 704 Using the physiplogical properties (case study: Kermanshah–mahidasht). Journal of Water and Soil, 27(4), 832-838. (In Persian)
Beheshti, A. R., Darkhal, H., Sadeghi, H., Shiri, M., & Jafariani, M. (2007). The effect of planting date on material allocation in canopy of hybrid maize cultivars. Final Report of the Research Project. Publication No. 86/1138, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. 80 pp. (In Persian)
Estakhr, A., & Dehghanpour, Z. (2010). Determination of the suitable planting date for new early maturity maize hybrids in second cropping in temprate regions in fars province. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 26(2), 169-191. (In Persian)
Etedali, S., Givi, J., & Nouri. A. (2012). Comparison between land production potential prediction for maize, Using FAO and wageningen wodels and assessment of management level for Its cultivation around shahrekord city. Journal of Water and Soil, 26, 873-885. (In Persian)
Farshi, A. A., Kheirabi, J., Siadat, H., Mirlatifei, M., Darbandi, S., Salamat. A. R., Entesari. M. R., & Sadat, M. H. (2003). On-farm irrigation water management. Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (IRNCID). Report 76. 200 pp. (In Persian)
Farshi, A. A., Shariati, M. R., Jarollahi, R., Ghaemi, M. R., shahabifar, M., & Tavalaei, M. M. (1997). Estimating water requirement for major crops and gardens of iran, Volume I. Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI) Publishing, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian)
Fatehi, Sh., Ghaderi, J., & Seyed jalali, S. A. R. (2007). Evaluation of land suitability and determination of production potential for maize in Kermanshah plain.10th Soil Science Congress of Iran. (In Persian)
Galebi, S. (2017). Investigation different irrigation managements role on water use efficiency in Maize farms (case study: Ghazvin). Final report of the research project. Publication No. 2057, Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Karaj, Iran. 60 pp. (In Persian)
Givi, J. (1997). Qualitative evaluation of land suitability for crops and orchards. Technical publications n 1015. Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI). 100 pp. (In Persian)
Heidary, N. (2011). Determination and evaluation of water use efficiency of crops, managed by farmers. Journal of Water Management and Irrigation, 2, 43-57. (In Persian)
Izadfard, A., Jahansouz, M. R., Sarmadian, F., Peykani, G. R., & Chaichi, M. R. (2017). Optimum sowing data determination based on historical climate data using aquacrop growth simulator model in moghan plain Ardabil province Iran. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 48(3), 799-810. (In Persian)
Khaghani, R.  (2010). Comparison between FAO and wageningen models production potential prediction for wheat, for its cultivation around marand region. Eleventh Congress of Soil Science, Soil management and Food Security.p.98. (In Persian)
Khayamim, S.,&  Fathelah Taleghani, D. (2008). Review of agronomical calendar research on sugar beet in Iran. Journal of Sugar Beet, 24(1), 121-124. (In Persian)
Khazaei, E., Zakerinia, M., Dehghani Sanij, H., Hezarjeribi, A., & Hesam, M. (2013). Application of online meteorological station in farm for calculating maize real-time water requirement and its effect on increasing water use efficiency in saveh city region. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 20(2), 143-159. (In Persian)
Mashayekhi, F., & Torabi, H. (2014). Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative land suitability for main crops in Khoda afarin region, Moghan plain. M.S Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Shahed University. (In Persian)
Ministry of Agriculture Jihad. (2017). Agricultural statistics, Volume I: Crops, 2015–2016 crop year. Information Technology Center, Deputy of Planning and Economics, Ministry of Agriculture Jihad, Tehran, 117 pp.
Ministry of Agriculture. (1994). Calendar agricultural crops. Deputy of Planning and Support of the General Directorate of Statistics and Information. Publication No. 21. 40 pp.
Shariati, M. R., Sabagh Farshi, A. R., & Khajenoori, A. (1993). Determination of potential water consumption and crop coefficient of corn. Final Report of the Research Project. Publication No. 902, Soil and Water Research Institute (SWRI), Karaj, Iran. 12 pp. (In Persian)
Shiri, M. R., Moharramnejad, S., Hanifezadeh, M., & Bandehhagh, A. (2016). Evaluation of yield stability of maize (Zea mays L.) influenced by planting data in moghan region. Journal of Agricultural Science, 26(2), 203-214. (In Persian)
Sobhani, B., & Omidzada, H. (2013). A Study of the role of temperature and precipitation climatic elements in preparation of corn crop calendar in khorramabad City. The 2nd International Conference on Plant, Water, Soil and Weather Modeling. Kerman. Iran. (In Persian)
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., & Debaveye, J. (1991a). Land evaluation part I, Principles in land evaluation and crop production calculation. General Adminestration for Development Cooperation. Agricultural Publications n.7, Brussels, Belgium. 274 pp.
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., & Debaveye, J. (1991b). Land evaluation, part II: Methods in land evaluation. General administration for development cooperation. Agricultural Publications n.7, Brussels, Belgium. 247 pp.
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., Debaveye, J., & Beernaert, F. (1993). Land evaluation. Part III. Crop requirements. General Administration for Development Cooperation. Agricultural Publication n. 7, Brussels-Belgium. 199 pp.
Toscano, P., Ranieri, R., Matese, A., Vaccari, F. P., Gioli, B. A., Zaldeia, M., Silvestri, C., Ronchi, P., & La Cava, J. R. (2012). Durum wheat modeling: The Delphi system, 11 years of observations in Italy. European Journal of Agronomy, 43, 108-118.
Yadollahi Noshabadi, S. J., Jahansuz, M. R., Majnoun Hosseini, N., & Peykani, Gh. R. (2017). Evaluation of hashtgerd area land for major crops production ability by FAO method. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 48(1), 25-38. (In Persian)
Zwart, S. J., & Bastiaanssen, G. M. (2004). Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat، rice، cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management, 69, 115-133.