Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.


In this study, the drought tolerance threshold and relationships between some biochemical and physiological responses of two stone fruit rootstocks, Cadaman and GF677, have been investigated. For this purpose, a pot experiment has been carried out in a greenhouse using factorial trial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. One-year-old rooted cuttings of two rootstocks are exposed to drought stress (-0.1 (control), -0.6, -1.1, -1.6 MPa) by adding different amounts of polyethylene glycol-6000 to Hoagland nutrient solution. Significant increase in electrolyte leakage and decrease in leaf relative water content of Cadaman and GF677 rootstocks has occurred at -0.6 and -1.1 MPa, respectively. Concentration of photosynthetic pigments and quantum yield of photosystem II (FV/FM) are less affected by drought stress, decreasing significantly in Cadaman and GF677 rootstocks at -1.1 and -1.6 MPa, respectively. Under severe drought stress, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance in Cadaman rootstock decline more considerably, compared to GF677. Moreover, at drought stress of -1.6 MPa, GF677 does not significantly reduce its photosynthesis, despite a substantial decrease in transpiration; however, the relative decrease in photosynthesis of Cadaman at -1.6 MPa has been much greater than the relative decrease in its transpiration and intercellular CO2 concentration, which, in turn, results in a drop in water use efficiency and mesophilic conductance of Cadaman leaves, compared to GF677. It seems that considerable reduction in photosynthesis in Cadaman rootstock, along with stomatal limitations, is largely due to non-stomatal constraints such as loss of cell membrane intact and reduction of chlorophyll, carotenoids and chlorophyll fluorescence. Results show that GF677 rootstock has higher tolerance to severe drought stress, compared to cadaman.


Angelopoulos, K., Dichio, B., & Xiloyannis, C. (1996). Inhibition of photosynthesis in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) during water stress and rewatering. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47 (301), 1093-110.
Anjum, S. A., Xie, X. Y., Wang, L. C., Saleem, M. F., Man, C., & Lei, W.) 2011(. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 2026-2032.
Atkinson, C. J., Policarpo, M., Webster, A. D., & Kingswell, G. (2000). Drought tolerance of clonal Malus determined from measurements of stomatal conductance and leaf water potential. Tree Physiology, 20, 557-563.
Barrs, H. D., & Weatherley, P. E. (1962). A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 15 (3),413-428.
Bertamini, M., Zulini, L., Muthuchelian, K., & Nedunchezhian, N. (2006). Effect of water deficit on photosynthetic and other physiological responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling). plants Photosynthetica, 44(1), 151-154.
Boughalleb, F., & Hajlaoui, H. (2011). Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv Zalmati and Chemlali). Journal of Acta Physiologia Plantarum, 33, 53-65.
Carole, L. B. (2013). Abiotic stress-plant responses and applications in agriculture. Water Use and Drought Response in Cultivated and Wild Apples, pp, 249-275.
Colom, M. R., & Vazzana, C. (2001). Drought stress effects on three cultivars of Eragrostis curvula Photosynthesis and water relations. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 34, 195-20S2.
Farooq, M., Wahid, A., & Lee, D.J. (2009). Exogenously applied polyamines increase drought tolerance of rice by improving leaf water status, photosynthesis and membrane properties. Journal of Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 31,937-945.
Ghaderi, N., Sioseh Mardeh, A., & Shahoei, S. S. (2006). A study of the effect of water stress on some physiological characteristics in two grape cultivars. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 37(1), 45-55. (In Persian)
Ghaderi, N., Talaie, A. R., Ebadi, A., & Lessani, H. (2011). The physiological response of three Iranian grape cultivars to progressive drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13, 601-610.
Hasheminasab, H., Aliakbari, A., & Baniasadi, R. (2014). Optimizing the relative waterprotection (RWP) as novel approach for monitoring drought tolerance in Iranian pistachio cultivars using graphical analysis. International Journal of Biosciences, 4, 194-203.
Isaakidis, A., Sotiropoulos, T., Almaliotis, D., Therios, I., & Stylianidis, D. (2004). Response to severe water stress of the almond (Prunus amygdalus) ’Ferragnès’ grafted on eight rootstocks. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 32, 355-362.
Jiménez, S., Dridi, J., Gutiérrez, D., Moret, D., Irigoyen, J. J., Moreno1, M. A., & Gogorcena, Y. (2013). Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in four Prunus rootstocks submitted to drought stress. Tree Physiology, 33, 1061-1075.
Joshi, S. C., Chandra, S., & Palni, L. M. S. (2007). Differences in photosynthetic characteristics and accumulation of osmoprotectants in saplings of evergreen plants grown inside and outside a glasshouse during the winter season. Journal of Photosynthetica, 45(4), 594-600.
Khattab, M. M., & Shaban, A. E.) 2011). Growth and productivity of pomegranate trees under different irrigation levels. III: leaf pigments, proline and mineral content. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants, 3(3), 265-269.
Kiani, S. P., Maury, P., Sarrafi, A., & Grieu, P. (2008). QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Journal of Plant Science, 175, 565–573.
Kocheva, K., Lambrev, P., Georgiev, G., Goltsev, V., & Karabaliev, M. (2004). Evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane injury in the leaves of barley cultivars under osmotic stress. Journal of Bioelectrochemistry, 63, 121-124.
Liu, B., Li, M., Cheg, L., Liang, D,. Zou, Y., & Ma, F. (2012). Influence of rootstock on antioxidant system in leaves and roots of young apple trees in response to drought stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 67, 247-256.
Lutts, S., Kinet, J., & Bouharmont, J. (1995). Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. Journal of Experimental Botany, 46(12), 1843-1852.
Mashayekhi, M., Habibi, F. & Amiri, E. (2014). Mechanism of drought stress tolerance of GF677 rootstock (peach and almond hybrid) under in vitro condition.  Journal of Crops Improvement, 16, 707-716.
Maxwell, K., & Johnson, G. N. (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence: a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 659–668.
Munne-Bosch, S., & Alegre, L. (2004). Die and let live: leaf senescence contributes to plant survival under drought stress. Journal of Functional Plant Biology, 31, 203-216.
Nawaz, F., Ahmad, R. W., araich, E. A., Naeem, M. S., & Shabbir, R. N. (2012). Nutrient uptake, physiological responses, and yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to early and late drought stress. Journal of plant nutrition, 35(6), 961-974. 10.1080/01904167.2012.663637
Percival, G.C., & Henderson, A.) 2003(. An assessment of freezing tolerance of urban trees using chlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Horticultural Scince and Biotechnology, 78, 254-60.
Porra, R. J. (2002). The chequered history of the development and use of simultaneous equations for the accurate determination of chlorophylls a and b. Journal of Photosynthesis Research, 73(1-3), 149-156.
Premachandra, G. S., Saneoka, H., Kanaya, M., & Ogata, S. (1991). Cell membrane stability and leaf surface wax content as affected by increasing water deficits in maize. Journal Express of Botanical, 42, 167-171.
Ramanjulus, S., Sreenivasulu, N., & Sudhakar, C. (1998). Effect of water stress on photosynthesis in two mulberry genotypes with different drought tolerance. Journal of Photosynthetica, 35, 279-283.
Ranjbar, A., Imani, A., Piri Piraivt lou, S., & Abdoosi, V. (2019). Effects of Drought Stress on Almond Cultivar's Responses Grafted on Different Rootstocks. Journal of Nuts, 10, 9-24. .
Rezaee, T., Gholami, M., Eeshadi, A., & Mosaddeghi, M. R. (2008). The effect of water deficit stress on some growth and physiological characteristics of five grapevine cultivars (Vitts vinifera L.). Agricultural Research, 7(4), 199-210. (In Persian).
Romero, P., Navarro, J. M., Garcia, F., & Ordaz, P. B. (2004). Effects of regulated deficit irrigation during the pre-harvest period on gas exchange, leaf development and crop yield of mature almond trees. Tree Physiology, 24, 303-312. DOI: 10.1093/treephys/24.3.303
Rouhi, V., Samson, R., Lemeur, R., &Van Damme, P. (2007). Photosynthetic Gas Exchange Characteristics in Three Different Almond Species during Drought Stress and Subsequent Recovery. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 59, 117-129.
Sayar, R., Khemira, H., Kameli, A., & Mosbahi, M. (2008). Physiological tests as predictive appreciation for drought tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Journal of Agronomy Resorse, 6(1), 79-90.
Seraa, I., Strever, A., Myburgh, P. A., & Deloire, A. (2013). the interaction between rootstocks and cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) to enhance drought tolerance in grapevine. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 20, 1-14.
Shan, W., Liang, D., & Ma, F. (2014). Leaf micromorphology and suger may contribute to differences in drought tolerance for two apple cultivars. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 80, 249-258.
Shao, H. B., Chu, L.Y., Lu, Z. H., & Kang, C.M. )2008(. Main antioxidants and redox signaling in higher plant cells. Internationa Journal of Biology Sciences, 44, 12-18.
Smirnoff, N. (1998). Plant resistance to environmental stress. Journal of Current Opinion Biotechnology, 9, 214-219.
Smirnoff, N. )1993(. The role active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. Journal of New Phytologist, 125, 27-28.
Solari, L. I., Johnson, S., & Dejong, T. M. (2006). Relationship of water status to vegetative growth and leaf gas exchange of peach (Prunus persica) trees on different rootstocks. Tree Physiology, 26, 1333-1341.
Tognetti, R., Costagli, G., Minnocci, A., & Gucci, R. (2002). Stomatal behaviour and water use efficiency in two cultivars of Olea europaea L. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 132, 90-97.
Turner, J., Tanino, K., & Stushnoff, C. (1993). Evaluation of low temperature hardiness of strawberry plants under field and controlled conditions. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73(4), 1123-1125.
Wang, Sh., Liang, D., Li, Ch., Hao, Y., Ma, F., & Shu, H. (2012). Influence of drought stress on the cellular ultrastructure and antioxidant system in leaves of drought- tolerant and drought-sensitive apple rootstocks. Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 51, 81-89.
Waraich, E. A., Ahmad, R., & Ashra, F. M. Y. (2011). Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(6), 764
Yanbao, L., Chunying, Y., & Chunyang, L. (2006). Differences in some morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress in two contrasting population of Populus przewalskii. Journal of Physiologia Plantarum, 127, 182-191.
Zrig, A,. Tounekti, T., Vadel, A., Ben Mohamed, H., Valero, D., Serrano, M., Chtara, C., & Khemira, H. (2011). Possible involvement of polyphenols and polyamines in salt tolerance of almond rootstocks. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49, 1313-1322.