Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding,Faculty of agriculture, University of Kurdistan,Sanandaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding,, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Centre, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Zanjan, Iran.


The present study has been conducted to investigate the effect of Brassinosteroid on some physiological traits, yield components, seed yield, and oil of Dragon’s head under deficit irrigation conditions. The experiment has been conducted as split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 in the research farm of Agricultural Research and Training Center and Natural Resources of Zanjan Province. Experimental treatments include deficit irrigation (normal or control irrigation, irrigation cut-off from the beginning of flowering to the end of maturity, irrigation cut-off from the beginning of branching (emergence of the sixth pair of main stem leaves to physiological maturity) in main and foliar spraying with Brassinosteroid with concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, 1.5 μM, and control, all applied in the sub plots. Results show that irrigation cut-off from the beginning of branching has decreased in total the chlorophyll content (42.8%), number of capsules per plant (62.7%), number of seed per plant (66.1%), 1000-seed weight (22.3%), biological and seed yield (62.1%), harvest index (30.8%), and oil yield (75.1%). Foliar application with Brassinosteroids has only significantly increased the leaf total chlorophyll concentration and seed oil percentage under different levels of irrigation cut-off stress. There is a statistically significant difference between foliar application levels with Brassinosteroids for leaf total chlorophyll concentration and seed oil percentage traits. There is a need for complementary researches to prove the effectiveness of foliar application with this growth regulator to improve growth and yield of Dragon’s head under deficit irrigation conditions.


Abaspor, H., & Rezaei, H. (2014). Effects of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on hill reaction and photosynthetic pigment (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) in different levels of drought stress. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2, 2850-2859.
Aghaei-Gharachorlou, P., & Nasrollahzadeh, S. (2015). Effect of drought stress and plant density on oil percentage, oil and grain yield of dragon’s head (Lallemantia Iberica Fish. et Mey.). International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 2(4), 654-659.
Ahammed, G., Xia, X., Li, X., Shi, K., Yu, J., & Zhou, Y. (2014). Role of brassinosteroid in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses and its interplay with other hormones. Current Protein & Peptide Science, 16(5), 462-473.
Ahmadi, K., & Omidi, H. (2018). The effect of drought stress on physiological traits, peroxidase activity and grain yield of five populations of Lallemantia royleana Benth. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 34, 412-429. (In Persian).
Amanzadeh, Y., Khosravi dehaghi, N., Ghorbani, A. R., Monsef-Esfahani, H. R., & Sadat-Ebrahimi, S. E. (2011). Antioxidant activity of essential oil of Lallemantia iberica in flowering stage and Post-flowering stage. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(3), 114-117.
AOAC. (1990). Fatty acids in oil and fats. In K. Helrich (Ed.), Official methods of analysis (15th ed., pp. 963-964.). USA.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 24, 1-15.
Azarakhshi, M., Farzadmehr, L., Eslah, M., & Sahabi, H. (2013). An investigation on trends of annual and seasonal rainfall and temperature in different climatologically regions of Iran. Journal of Range Water Management, 66, 1-16. (In Persian).
Bajgaz, A. (2000). Effect of brassinosteroids on nucleic acids and protein content in cultured cells of Chorella vulgaris. Plant Physiology and Biochemistery, 38, 209-215.
Belin, C., Thomine, S., & Schroeder, J. I. (2010). Water balance and the regulation of stomatal movements. In A. Pareek (Ed.), Abiotic stress adaptation in plants (pp. 283-305). Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Daneshmand, A., Shirani Rad, A., Noor-Mohammadi, G., & Zarei, J. (2008). Study oil seed and seed protein of two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and relations of them with oil yield and protein yield. Iranian Agricultural Science, 5, 314-295. (In Persian)
Fanaei, H., Keikha, H., & Piri, I. (2015). Effect of seed priming on grain and oil yield of safflower under water deficit conditions. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Research, 2(2), 49-59. (In Persian).
Jaleel, C. A., Manivannan, P., Wahid, A., Farooq, M., Al-Juburi, H.J., Somasundaram, R., & Panneerselvam, R. (2009). Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, 100-105.
Krishna, P., Prasad, B. D., & Rahman, T. (2017). Brassinosteroid action in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Methods in Molecular Biology, 1564, 193-202.
Lambers, H., Chapin, F. S., & Pons, T. L. (2008). Plant Physiological Ecology. 2nd ed., Springer, New York.
Laribi, B., Bettaieb, I., Kouki, K., Sahli, A., Mougou, A., & Mazrouk, B. (2009). Water deficit effects on caraway (Carum carvi L.) growth, essential oil and fatty acid composition. Industrial Crops and Products, 30, 372-379.
Lisar, S. Y. S., Motafakkerazad, R., Hossain, M. M., & Rahman, I. M. M. (2012). Water stress in plants: causes, effects and responses. In I. M. M. Rahman (Ed.), Water Stress (pp. 1-14). In Tech Publications.
Mohammadi, M., Tavakoli, A., Pouryousef, M., & Mohsenifard, E. (2018). Improvement of photosynthesis, gas exchange and chlorophyll content of bean by application of Epibrassinolide under drought stress condition. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 50, 71-83. (In Persian).
Nasrollahzadeh, S., & Aghaei-Gharachorlou, P. (2014). Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass, essential oil production and mucilage yield of dragon’s head (Lallemantia iberica fish. Et mey.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences, 3(2), 89-94.
Nourzad, S., Ahmadian, A., Moghaddam, M., & Daneshfar, E. (2014). Effect of drought stress on yield, yield components and essential oil in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) treated with organic and inorganic fertilizers. Journal of Crop Improvement, 2, 289-302. (In Persian)
Rahmani, N., Valadabadi, S. A., Daneshian, J., & Bigdeli, M. (2008). The effects of water deficit stress and nitrogen on oil yield of Calendula officinalis L. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 24, 101-108. (In Persian)
Rezapor, A. R., Heidari, M. R., Galavi, M., & Ramrod, M. )2011(. Effect of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, yield components and osmotic adjustment in Nigella sativa. Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants, 3(53), 384-396. (In Persian)
Rontein, D., Basset, G., & Hanson, A. D. (2002). Metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant accumulation in plants. Metabolic Engineering, 4, 49-56.
Setayesh-mehr, Z., & Ganjali, A. (2013). Effects of drought stress on growth and physiological characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science, 27, 27-35.
Shubhra, K., Dayal, J., Goswami, C. L., & Munjal, R. (2004). Effects of water-deficit on oil of Calendula aerial parts. Biologia Plantarum, 48(3), 445-448.
Thalooth, A. T., Tawfik, M. M., & Mohamed, H. M. (2006). A comparative study on the effect of foliar application of zinc, potassium and magnesium on growth, yield and some chemical constituents of mungbean plants grown under water stress conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 37-46.
Wang, X., Cai, X., Xu, C., Wang, Q., & Dai, S. (2016). Drought-responsive mechanisms in plant leaves revealed by proteomics. Intenational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 1-30.
Yeganehpoor, F., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Shafagh-Kolvanagh, J., Ghassemi-Golezani, K., & Dastborhan, S. (2017). Effect of some morphological traits and oil content of coriander seeds in response to bio-fertilizer and salicylic acid under water stress. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 10(1), 140-149.
Yin, W., Dongm N., Niu, M., Zhang, X., Li, L., Liu, J., Liu, B., & Tong, H. (2019). Brassinosteroid-regulated plant growth and development and gene expression in soybean. Crop Journal, 7(3), 411-418.
Zafari, M., Ebadi, A., & Jahanbakhsh, S. (2017). Effect brassinosteroid application on safflower cultivars tolerance to water stress in Ardabil. Journal of Crop Production, 10, 31-17. (In Persian)