In order to study the foliar application of melatonin on plants grown from safflower in different seed quality under drought condition, two field experiments were carried out at research farm of Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran in 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. The experimental design was split-factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The treatments consisted of two levels of drought stress (1- normal irrigation (no-stress) and 2- irrigation after reaching 85% of soil moisture depletion of field capacity at flowering stage (drought stress)) were randomized to the main plots. Subplots were 4 treatments in number and consisted of a factorial combination of seed quality (stored seed and recently harvested seeds) and foliar application (1-control and, 2- melatonin foliar application). The results illustrated that the SOD and CAT activity were increased in response to melatonin in plants grown from recently harvested seeds under drought condition. Furthermore, it indicated that foliar application of melatonin decreased the amount of leaf soluble proteins by 28 % in plants grown from recently harvested seeds under drought condition. The results showed that the amount of malondialdehyde decreased by 37% in plants grown from recently harvested seeds by foliar application of melatonin under drought condition. It seems that the seed quality has a great influence on grown plants and, also using melatonin may play a substantial role in ameliorating the injuries derived from stress on safflower plant.