Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy , faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Seed and plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Seed and plant Improvement Institute Agricaltural Research, , Education and Extension organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

Abstract

The present study attempts to investigate the effect of Magnesium nanoparticle spraying solution on some morphophysiological traits of sunflower under experimental drought conditions. Hence, it conducts an experiment as split split plot in a randomized, completely block design, with three replicates at the field of oilseed section of seed and plant Improvement during 2017-2019 growing season. The treatments include drought stress at two levels: normal irrigation and drought stress. The studied sunflower cultivars include Farrokh, Shams, Qasem & Barzegar, and Magnesium nanoparticles application time at Three Levels: no spraying solution, spraying at flowering stage, and grain filling stage. Results show that drought stress reduces the amount of traits such as height, shoot dry weight, number of grains per head, 1000 grain weight, head diameter, grain yield, oil percentage, and oil yield; however, magnesium nanoparticle spraying solution improves the drought stress effect and increases morphological traits. Drought stress increases electrolyte leakage index and decreases relative water content of leaves by 13% and 9%, respectively. However, magnesium nanoparticles decrease the content of electrolyte leakage index by 9% and increase relative leaf water content by 10%. The cultivars’ response to stress levels has not been the same. In general, Barzegar, Shams, Qasem, and Farrokh cultivars show the highest tolerance to drought stress. Also the highest grain yield and oil percentage are related to Barzegar cultivar by 3427.53 kg/h and 43.96%, respectively.

Keywords

Adebayo, M. A., Menkir, A., Blay, E., Gracen, V., Danquah, E., & Hearne, S. (2014). Genetic analysis of drought tolerance in adapted× exotic crosses of maize inbred lines under managed stress conditions, Euphytica, 196(2), 261-270.

Al-Snafi, A. E. (2018). The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Foeniculum vulgare-A review, IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 8(5), 81-96.

Alyari, H., Shekari, F., & Shekari, F. (2000). Oilseeds. Agriculture and Physiology, Amidi PublisherTabriz. 182p. (In Persian)

Aslam, W., Arfan, M., Shahid, S. A., Anwar, F., Mahmood, Z., & Rashid, U. (2014). Effects of exogenously applied Zn on the growth, yield, chlorophyll. Int. J. Pharm. Chem. Biol.Sci., 5,11-15.

Babaei, K., Seyed Sharifi, R., Pirzad, A., & Khalilzadeh, R. (2017). Effects of bio fertilizer and nano Zn-Fe oxide on physiological traits, antioxidant enzymes activity and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress, Journal of Plant Interactions, 12(1), 381-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1371798

Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., De Labrouhe, D. T., Serre, F., Philippon, J., Nicolas, P., & Vear, F. (2003). Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107(1), 181-189.

Borowski, E., & Michałek, S. (2010). The effect of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) with magnesium salts and urea on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality. Acta Agrobotanica, 63(1), 77-85.

Cakmak, I. (2008). Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification?, Plant and Soil, 302(1-2), 1-17.

Carvalho, L. M. D., Araújo, S. B. D., Carvalho, H. W. L. D., & Carvalho, C. G. P. D. (2018). Proline content of sunflower cultivars in the Brazilian semiarid region, Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 53(8), 970-973. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2018000800012

Emam, Y., Shekoofa, A., Salehi, F., Jalali, A. H., & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Drought stress effects on two common bean cultivars with contrasting growth habits, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58(5), 527-534. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2010.530256

Ertiftik, H., & Zengin, M. (2016). Response of sunflower to potassium and magnesium fertilizers in calcerous soils in central Anatolia of Turkey. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 39(12), 1734-1744. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1187741

Franca, M. G. C., Thi, A. T. P., Pimentel, C., Rossiello, R. O. P., Zuily-Fodil, Y., & Laffray, D. (2000). Differences in growth and water relations among Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars in response to induced drought stress, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 43(3), 227-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(99)00060-X

Ghanbari, A. A., Shakiba, M. R., Toorchi, M., & Choukan, R. (2013). Morpho-physiological responses of common bean leaf to water deficit stress, European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3(1), 487-492.

Goksoy, A. T., Demir, A. O., Turan, Z. M., & Dagustu, N. (2004). Responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to full and limited irrigation at different growth stages, Field Crops Research, 2(87), 167-178.

Grewal, H. S., & Graham, R. D. (1999). Residual effects of subsoil zinc and oilseed rape genotype on the grain yield and distribution of zinc in wheat, Plant and Soil, 207(1), 29-36.

Hassan, A. M., & Mohamed, H. E. (2019). l-Arginine Pretreatment Enhances Drought Resistance of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Plants by Increase in Polyamines Content, Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 38(2), 600-605.

Heidari, M., & Karami, A. V. (2013). Evaluation of effect drought stress and species of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi on yield and grain yield components, chlorophyll contents and bioghmical compounds of sunflower, Environmental Stress in Crop Science, 6(1), 17-26. (In Persian)

Hermans, C., Johnson, G. N., Strasser, R. J., & Verbruggen, N. (2004). Physiological characterisation of magnesium deficiency in sugar beet: acclimation to low magnesium differentially affects photosystems I and II, Planta, 220(2), 344-355.

Hocking, P. J., & Steer, B. T. (1983). Uptake and partitioning of selected mineral elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) during growth, Field Crops Research, 6, 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(83)90051-5

Hossain, M. I., Khatun, A., Talukder, M. S. A., Dewan, M. M. R., & Uddin, M. S. (2010). Effect of drought on physiology and yield contributing characters of sunflower, Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(1), 113-124.

Kalamian, S., Modares, S. S., & Sepehri, A. (2006). Effect of water deficit at vegetative and reproductive growth stages in leafy and commercial hybrids of maize, 53, 38-53 (In persian)

Leon, A. J., Andrade, F. H., & Lee, M. (2000). Genetic mapping of factors affecting quantitative variation for flowering in sunflower, Crop science, 40(2), 404-407. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.402404x

Miyashita, K., Tanakamaru, S., Maitani, T., & Kimura, K. (2005). Recovery responses of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance in kidney bean following drought stress, Environmental and experimental botany, 53(2), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.015

Moaveni, P., & Kheiri, T. (2011, November). TiO2 nano particles affected on maize (Zea mays L.). In 2nd international conference on agricultural and animal science (Vol. 22, pp. 160-163). Singapore: IACSIT Press.

Paygzar, Y., Ghanbari, A., Heidari, M., & Tavassoli, A. (2009). Effect foliar of micronutrients on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of millet under drought stress (Pennisetum glaucum) species notrifed. Iranian J. Agric. Sci., Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, 3(10), 67-78.(in Persian)

Pereyra-Irujo, G. A., & Aguirrezábal, L. A. (2007). Sunflower yield and oil quality interactions and variability: Analysis through a simple simulation model, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 143(3-4), 252-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.01.001

Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Nouri, L., Ykhlef, N., Grieu, P., & Sarrafi, A. (2009). QTL analysis of yield‐related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding, 128(4), 363-373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2009.01628.x

Razi, H., & Asaad, T. (1998). Evaluation of important agronomic traits and drought stress tolerance related criteria changes in sunflower cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 2(1), 31-43. [In Persian with English Abstract].

Rebey, I. B., Jabri-Karoui, I., Hamrouni-Sellami, I., Bourgou, S., Limam, F., & Marzouk, B. (2012). Effect of drought on the biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds, Industrial Crops and Products, 36(1), 238-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.013

Roshdi, M., Rezadost, S., Khalil Mahaleh, J., & Haji Nasab, N. (2009). The impact of bio-fertilizers on yield of three varieties of sunflower, Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 10, 24-11. (In persian)

Safavi, A., Pordad, S.S., & Jamshid Moghadam, M. (2011). Sunflower drought tolerant genotypes, Journal of Plant and Seed, 2, 129-148. (In persian)

Sairam, R. K., Srivastava, G. C., & Saxena, D. C. (2000). Increased antioxidant activity under elevated temperatures: a mechanism of heat stress tolerance in wheat genotypes, Biologia Plantarum, 43(2), 245-251.

Schneiter, A. A., & Miller, J. F. (1981). Description of sunflower growth stages. Crop Science, 21(6), 901-903.

Sánchez, F. J., Manzanares, M., de Andres, E. F., Tenorio, J. L., & Ayerbe, L. (1998). Turgor maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crops Research, 59(3), 225-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00125-7

Shamsi, K. (2010). The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 8(3), 1051-1060.‏

Singh, K., Rathore, P., & Gumber, R. K. (2015). Effects of foliar application of nutrients on growth and yield of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 44(1), 9-14.

Škorić, D. (2009). Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses/mejoramiento de girasol por resistencia a estreses abióticos/sélection du tournesol pour la résistance aux stress abiotiques. Helia, 32(50), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.2298/hel0950001s

Solomon, S., Manning, M., Marquis, M., & Qin, D. (2007). Climate change 2007-the physical science basis: Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC (Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.

Stuart, N. W. (1940). Comparative cold hardiness of scion roots from fifty apple varieties. Proceedings, American Society for Horticultural Science, 1939, 37, 330-4.

Taghavi, D., Valadiani, A., Nourmohamadi, G., & Fatahi, A. (2007). The Relationship between extinction coefficient and density of grain yield figures nutty sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 414-405. (In Persian)

Vafaie, A., Ebadi, A., Rastgou, B., & Moghadam, S. H. (2013). The effects of potassium and magnesium on yield and some physiological traits of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences (IJACS), 5(17), 1895-1900.

Yadollahi Dehcheshmeh, P., Bagheri, A.A., Amiri, A., & Esmailzadeh, S. (2014). Effects of drought and foliar application on yield and photosynthetic pigments sunflower, Journal of Crop Physiology, 6(21), 73-83. (In Persian)

Zago, M. P., & Oteiza, P. I. (2001). The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 31(2), 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00583-4

Adebayo, M. A., Menkir, A., Blay, E., Gracen, V., Danquah, E., & Hearne, S. (2014). Genetic analysis of drought tolerance in adapted× exotic crosses of maize inbred lines under managed stress conditions, Euphytica, 196(2), 261-270.
Al-Snafi, A. E. (2018). The chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Foeniculum vulgare-A review, IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 8(5), 81-96.
Alyari, H., Shekari, F., & Shekari, F. (2000). Oilseeds. Agriculture and Physiology, Amidi PublisherTabriz. 182p. (In Persian)
Aslam, W., Arfan, M., Shahid, S. A., Anwar, F., Mahmood, Z., & Rashid, U. (2014). Effects of exogenously applied Zn on the growth, yield, chlorophyll. Int. J. Pharm. Chem. Biol.Sci., 5,11-15.
Babaei, K., Seyed Sharifi, R., Pirzad, A., & Khalilzadeh, R. (2017). Effects of bio fertilizer and nano Zn-Fe oxide on physiological traits, antioxidant enzymes activity and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress, Journal of Plant Interactions, 12(1), 381-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1371798
Bert, P. F., Jouan, I., De Labrouhe, D. T., Serre, F., Philippon, J., Nicolas, P., & Vear, F. (2003). Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107(1), 181-189.
Borowski, E., & Michałek, S. (2010). The effect of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) with magnesium salts and urea on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality. Acta Agrobotanica, 63(1), 77-85.
Cakmak, I. (2008). Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification?, Plant and Soil, 302(1-2), 1-17.
Carvalho, L. M. D., Araújo, S. B. D., Carvalho, H. W. L. D., & Carvalho, C. G. P. D. (2018). Proline content of sunflower cultivars in the Brazilian semiarid region, Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 53(8), 970-973. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2018000800012
Emam, Y., Shekoofa, A., Salehi, F., Jalali, A. H., & Pessarakli, M. (2012). Drought stress effects on two common bean cultivars with contrasting growth habits, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58(5), 527-534. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2010.530256
Ertiftik, H., & Zengin, M. (2016). Response of sunflower to potassium and magnesium fertilizers in calcerous soils in central Anatolia of Turkey. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 39(12), 1734-1744. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2016.1187741
Franca, M. G. C., Thi, A. T. P., Pimentel, C., Rossiello, R. O. P., Zuily-Fodil, Y., & Laffray, D. (2000). Differences in growth and water relations among Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars in response to induced drought stress, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 43(3), 227-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(99)00060-X
Ghanbari, A. A., Shakiba, M. R., Toorchi, M., & Choukan, R. (2013). Morpho-physiological responses of common bean leaf to water deficit stress, European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3(1), 487-492.
Goksoy, A. T., Demir, A. O., Turan, Z. M., & Dagustu, N. (2004). Responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to full and limited irrigation at different growth stages, Field Crops Research, 2(87), 167-178.
Grewal, H. S., & Graham, R. D. (1999). Residual effects of subsoil zinc and oilseed rape genotype on the grain yield and distribution of zinc in wheat, Plant and Soil, 207(1), 29-36.
Hassan, A. M., & Mohamed, H. E. (2019). l-Arginine Pretreatment Enhances Drought Resistance of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Plants by Increase in Polyamines Content, Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 38(2), 600-605.
Heidari, M., & Karami, A. V. (2013). Evaluation of effect drought stress and species of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi on yield and grain yield components, chlorophyll contents and bioghmical compounds of sunflower, Environmental Stress in Crop Science, 6(1), 17-26. (In Persian)
Hermans, C., Johnson, G. N., Strasser, R. J., & Verbruggen, N. (2004). Physiological characterisation of magnesium deficiency in sugar beet: acclimation to low magnesium differentially affects photosystems I and II, Planta, 220(2), 344-355.
Hocking, P. J., & Steer, B. T. (1983). Uptake and partitioning of selected mineral elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) during growth, Field Crops Research, 6, 93-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(83)90051-5
Hossain, M. I., Khatun, A., Talukder, M. S. A., Dewan, M. M. R., & Uddin, M. S. (2010). Effect of drought on physiology and yield contributing characters of sunflower, Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(1), 113-124.
Kalamian, S., Modares, S. S., & Sepehri, A. (2006). Effect of water deficit at vegetative and reproductive growth stages in leafy and commercial hybrids of maize, 53, 38-53 (In persian)
Leon, A. J., Andrade, F. H., & Lee, M. (2000). Genetic mapping of factors affecting quantitative variation for flowering in sunflower, Crop science, 40(2), 404-407. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2000.402404x
Miyashita, K., Tanakamaru, S., Maitani, T., & Kimura, K. (2005). Recovery responses of photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance in kidney bean following drought stress, Environmental and experimental botany, 53(2), 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.015
Moaveni, P., & Kheiri, T. (2011, November). TiO2 nano particles affected on maize (Zea mays L.). In 2nd international conference on agricultural and animal science (Vol. 22, pp. 160-163). Singapore: IACSIT Press.
Paygzar, Y., Ghanbari, A., Heidari, M., & Tavassoli, A. (2009). Effect foliar of micronutrients on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of millet under drought stress (Pennisetum glaucum) species notrifed. Iranian J. Agric. Sci., Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, 3(10), 67-78.(in Persian)
Pereyra-Irujo, G. A., & Aguirrezábal, L. A. (2007). Sunflower yield and oil quality interactions and variability: Analysis through a simple simulation model, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 143(3-4), 252-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.01.001
Poormohammad Kiani, S., Maury, P., Nouri, L., Ykhlef, N., Grieu, P., & Sarrafi, A. (2009). QTL analysis of yield‐related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding, 128(4), 363-373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.2009.01628.x
Razi, H., & Asaad, T. (1998). Evaluation of important agronomic traits and drought stress tolerance related criteria changes in sunflower cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 2(1), 31-43. [In Persian with English Abstract].
Rebey, I. B., Jabri-Karoui, I., Hamrouni-Sellami, I., Bourgou, S., Limam, F., & Marzouk, B. (2012). Effect of drought on the biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds, Industrial Crops and Products, 36(1), 238-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.013
Roshdi, M., Rezadost, S., Khalil Mahaleh, J., & Haji Nasab, N. (2009). The impact of bio-fertilizers on yield of three varieties of sunflower, Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 10, 24-11. (In persian)
Safavi, A., Pordad, S.S., & Jamshid Moghadam, M. (2011). Sunflower drought tolerant genotypes, Journal of Plant and Seed, 2, 129-148. (In persian)
Sairam, R. K., Srivastava, G. C., & Saxena, D. C. (2000). Increased antioxidant activity under elevated temperatures: a mechanism of heat stress tolerance in wheat genotypes, Biologia Plantarum, 43(2), 245-251.
Schneiter, A. A., & Miller, J. F. (1981). Description of sunflower growth stages. Crop Science, 21(6), 901-903.
Sánchez, F. J., Manzanares, M., de Andres, E. F., Tenorio, J. L., & Ayerbe, L. (1998). Turgor maintenance, osmotic adjustment and soluble sugar and proline accumulation in 49 pea cultivars in response to water stress. Field Crops Research, 59(3), 225-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00125-7
Shamsi, K. (2010). The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 8(3), 1051-1060.‏
Singh, K., Rathore, P., & Gumber, R. K. (2015). Effects of foliar application of nutrients on growth and yield of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 44(1), 9-14.
Škorić, D. (2009). Sunflower breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses/mejoramiento de girasol por resistencia a estreses abióticos/sélection du tournesol pour la résistance aux stress abiotiques. Helia, 32(50), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.2298/hel0950001s
Solomon, S., Manning, M., Marquis, M., & Qin, D. (2007). Climate change 2007-the physical science basis: Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC (Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.
Stuart, N. W. (1940). Comparative cold hardiness of scion roots from fifty apple varieties. Proceedings, American Society for Horticultural Science, 1939, 37, 330-4.
Taghavi, D., Valadiani, A., Nourmohamadi, G., & Fatahi, A. (2007). The Relationship between extinction coefficient and density of grain yield figures nutty sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 414-405. (In Persian)
Vafaie, A., Ebadi, A., Rastgou, B., & Moghadam, S. H. (2013). The effects of potassium and magnesium on yield and some physiological traits of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences (IJACS), 5(17), 1895-1900.
Yadollahi Dehcheshmeh, P., Bagheri, A.A., Amiri, A., & Esmailzadeh, S. (2014). Effects of drought and foliar application on yield and photosynthetic pigments sunflower, Journal of Crop Physiology, 6(21), 73-83. (In Persian)
Zago, M. P., & Oteiza, P. I. (2001). The antioxidant properties of zinc: interactions with iron and antioxidants, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 31(2), 266-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00583-4