Document Type : Research Paper


1 1. Assistant Professor, Safiabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Dezful, Iran.

2 Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran.


The present experiment has been carried out as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Safiabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Dezful between 2012 and 2014. The main plots is consisted of 3 sowing dates (November 5, November 25, and December 15) with the sub plots including 10 levels of foliar application (100, 200, 300 mg.lit-1 ascorbic acid, 100, 200, 300 μmol ascorbic acid, 10, 20, 30 vol% methanol, and the foliar application of distilled water as control treatment). The effect of sowing date and foliar application as well as their interaction has had significant effect on proline, soluble sugars, number of siliques per plant, and seed yield (P≤0.01). Comparing means of sowing date × foliar application shows that the maximum number of siliques per plant (68.96) has been formed in the first sowing date with the foliar application of ascorbic acid (300 mg.lit-1). There has been a significant difference between different sowing dates: the seed yield has decreased in the second and third sowing date, compared to the first one by 145% and 30%, respectively. However, foliar application of experimental treatments has increased the seed yield in all sowing dates, but it is recommended to use ascorbic acid (300 mg.lit-1) in the first and third sowing dates as well as salicylic acid (200 µmol) and methanol (10%) in the second sowing date.


Abo-Hamed, S. A., Younis, M. E., El-Shahaby, O. A., & Haroun, S. A. (1990). Plant growth, metabolism and adaptation in relation to stress conditions. IX. Endogenous levels of hormones, minerals and organic solutes in Pisum sativum plants as affected by salinity. Phyton, 30, 187-193.
Bagheri, H. R., Moghadam, A. R. L., & Afshari, H. (2014). The effects of foliar application of methanol on growth and secondary metabolites in lavender. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 8, 150-152.
Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39, 205-208.
Dewez, D., Dautremepuits, C., Jeandet, P., Vernet, G., Popovic, R. (2003). Effects of Methanol on Photosynthetic Processes and Growth of Lemna gibba. Photochemistry and photobiology, 78, 420-424.
Dolatabadian, A., Modarres Sanavy, S. A. M., Asilan, K. S. (2010). Effect of Ascorbic Acid Foliar Application on Yield, Yield Component and several Morphological Traits of Grain Corn under Water Deficit Stress Conditions. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(3), 45-50.
Downie, A., Miyazaki, S., Bohnert, H., John, P., Coleman, J., Parry, M., Haslam, R. (2004). Expression profiling of the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to methanol stimulation. Phytochemistry, 65(16), 2305-2316.
El-Hamed, A. M., S. H. Sarhan, Abd El-Salam, H. Z. (2004). Evaluation of some organic acids as foliar application on growth, yield and some nutrient contents of wheat. Journal of Agricultural Science Mansoura University, 29, 2475-2481.
Eraslan, F., Inal, A., Gunes, A., Alpaslan, M., (2007). Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on the growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity. Scientia horticulturae, 113, 120-128.
Faratull, A. H., Sardar, A., Farman, U. (2004). Comparative yield potential and other quality characteristics of advanced lines of Rapeseed. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 6, 203-205.
Feng, B., Zhang, C., Chen, T., Zhang, X., Tao, L., & Fu, G. (2018). Salicylic acid reverses pollen abortion of rice caused by heat stress. BMC plant biology, 18(1), 1-16.
Gadallah, M. A. A. (2000). Effects of acid mist and ascorbic acid treatment on the growth, stability of leaf membranes, chlorophyll content and some mineral elements of Carthamus tinctorius, the safflower. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 118, 311-327.
Ghobadi, M., Bakhshandeh, A., Fathi, G., Gharineh, M. H., Alami-Saeed, K., & Naderi, A. (2006). Effects of sowing date and heat stress during flowering on yield and yield components in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 8(1), 46-58. (In Persian).
Gout, E., Aubert, S., Bligny, R., Rébeillé, F., Nonomura, A. R., Benson, A. A., & Douce, R. (2000). Metabolism of methanol in plant cells. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Plant Physiology, 123(1), 287-296.
Hara, M., Furukawa, J., Sato, A., Mizoguchi, T., & Miura, K. (2012). Abiotic stress and role of salicylic acid in plants. Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants. Springer, pp. 235-251.
Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q., Ali, B., & Ahmad, A. (2005). Effect of salicylic acid on growth and enzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 53, 433-437.
Irfan, A., S. M. A. Basra, F. Mahammed, Nawaz. A. (2006). Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA , Salisalic acid and ascorbic acid. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 8, 23-28.
Irigoyen, J. J., Emerich, D. W., & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants. Plant Physiology, 84, 55-60.
Kalantar Ahmadi, S. A. K., Ebadi, A., Daneshian, J., Jahanbakhsh, S., Siadat, S. A., & Tavakoli, H. (2015). Effects of irrigation deficit and application of some growth regulators on defense mechanisms of canola. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 43(1), 124-130.
Kalantar Ahmadi, S. A. K., Ebadi, A., Daneshian, J., Siadat, S. A., & Jahanbakhsh, S. (2017). Effect of drought stress and foliar application of growth regulators on photosynthetic pigments and seed yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cv. Hyola 401). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 18(3), 196-217. (In Persian).
Kalantar Ahmadi, S. A., Ebadi, A., Siadat, S. A., & Tavakoli Hasanaklou, H. (2014). Effects of heat stress due to changing of sowing date on grain yield of rapeseed cultivars in north Khouzestan conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 16(1), 62-76. (In Persian).
Kamal, M. A., Saleem, M. F., Wahid, M. A., & Shakeel, A. (2017). Effects of ascorbic acid on membrane stability and yield of heat-stressed BT cotton. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 27(1), 192-199.
Ketchum, R.E., Warren, R.S., Klima, L.J., Lopez-Gutiérrez, F., & Nabors, M.W. (1991). The mechanism and regulation of proline accumulation in suspension cell cultures of the halophytic grass Distichlis spicata L. Journal of plant physiology, 137, 368-374.
Khodary, S. E. A. (2004). Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt-stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6(1), 5-8.
Kumar, S., Kaur, R., Kaur, N., Bhandhari, K., Kaushal, N., Gupta, K., & Nayyar, H. (2011). Heat-stress induced inhibition in growth and chlorosis in mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is partly mitigated by ascorbic acid application and is related to reduction in oxidative stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33(6), 2091-2101.
Moradi tochaee, M., Saifzadeh, , S. A., Dakrin, D., & Valadabadi, S. A., (2018). Investigation the effect of methanol and ascorbic acid foliar application on growth and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under rain fed conditions. Crop Physiology Journal, 36(9), 65-82. (In Persian).
Morrison, M. J., & Stewart, D. W. (2002). Heat stress during flowering in summer Brassica. Crop science, 42(3), 797-803.
Martel, A. B., & Qaderi, M. M. (2016). Does salicylic acid mitigate the adverse effects of temperature and ultraviolet-B radiation on pea (Pisum sativum) plants? Environmental and Experimental Botany, 122, 39-48.
Morrison, M. J. (1993). Heat stress during reproduction in summer rape. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71, 303-308.
Paknejad, F., Mirakhori, M., Al-Ahmadi, M. J., Tookalo, M. R., Pazoki, A. R., & Nazeri, P. (2009). Physiological Response of Soybean (Glycine max) to Foliar Application of Methanol Under Different Soil Moistures. American Journal of Agricultural & Biological Science, 4, 311-318.
Ramberg, H. A., Bradley, J. S. C., Olson, J. S. C., Nishio, J. N., Markwell, J., & Osterman, J. C. (2002). The role of methanol in promoting plant growth. Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1, 113-126.
Rotman, N., Rozier, F., Boavida, L., Dumas, C., Berger, F., & Faure, J. E. (2003). Female Control of Male Gamete Delivery during Fertilization in Arabidopsis thaliana. Current Biology, 13(5), 432-436.
Sairam, R. K., & Tyagi, A. (2004). Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Current Science Bangalore, 86, 407-421.
Sinaki, J., Heravan, E.M., Rad, A.S., Noormohammadi, G., & Zarei, G. (2007). The effects of water deficit during growth stages of canola (Brassica napus L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 2, 417-422.
Sylvester-Bradley, R., & Makepeace. R. J. (1984). Code for stages of development in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Aspects of Applied Biology, 6, 399-418.
Vollenweider, P., & Gunthardt-Goerg, M.S. (2005). Diagnosis of abiotic and biotic stress factors using the visible symptoms in foliage. Environmental Pollution, 137, 455-465.
Wahid, A. (2007). Physiological implications of metabolites biosynthesis in net assimilation and heat stress tolerance of sugarcane sprouts. Journal of Plant Research, 120, 219-228.
Wahid, A., & Close, T.J. (2007). Expression of dehydrins under heat stress and their relationship with water relations of sugarcane leaves. Biologiea Plantarum, 51, 104-109.
Warner, R. M., & Erwin, J. E. (2005). Naturally occurring variation in high temperature induced floral bud abortion across Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Plant, Cell & Environment, 28(10), 1255-1266.
Woods, D.L., Capcara, J. J., & Downey. R. K. (1991). The potential of mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Coss) as an edible oil crop on the Canadian Prairies. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 71, 195-198.
Young, L.W., Wilen, R.W., & Bonham-Smith, P.C. (2004). High temperature stress of Brassica napus during flowering reduces micro- and megagametophyte fertility, induces fruit abortion, and disrupts seed production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55, 485-495.
Zbiec, I., Karczmarczyk, S., & Podsiadło, C. (2003). Response of some cultivated plants to methanol as compared to supplemental irrigation. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 6(1), 1-7.
Zhang, C., Feng, B., Chen, T., Zhang, X., Tao L., & Fu, G. (2017). Sugars, antioxidant enzymes and IAA mediate salicylic acid to prevent rice spikelet degeneration caused by heat stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 83, 313-323.