Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of plant production and genetics, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Horticulture Crop Research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, (AREEO), Urmia, Iran.


The present experiment has been conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research farm of Urmia for two years (2017-2018) to investigate the effect of green manure residues and fertilizer sources on physiological traits, biological yield, and seed oil content of linseed. Experimental factors include green manure in two levels: no green manure and red clover (Trifolium pratense), different sources of fertilizer in four levels: no fertilizer, mycorrhiza, vermicompost and mycorrhiza + vermicompost, both in full irrigation condition and irrigation terminationat the flowering stage. Results of the combined analysis show that the year has a significant effect on chlorophyll a, colonization percentage, grain nitrogen and phosphorus, biological yield, and seed oil. Irrigation termination treatment decreases all traits except proline and soluble carbohydrate contents. Green manure, mycorrhizae, and vermicompost significantly increase the studied traits at both irrigation levels, except for grain nitrogen, not affected by green manure. The application of mycorrhiza+ vermicompost, with or without green manure, is more effective than their individual applications. The dual application results in an increase of 68.98% and 61.34% for biological yield and 11.8% and 4.5% for seed oil, compared to the control in complete irrigation treatment, respectively. In general, green manure, mycorrhiza, and vermicompost can improve the quantitative and qualitative performance of flaxseed in irrigation terminationat the flowering stage.


Ahmad, P., Azooz, M., Prasad, M. N. V. (2012). Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer Science & Business Media.
Algan, N & Celen, A.S. (2011). Evaluation of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) as green manure in Aegean conditions in terms of soil nutrition under different sowing dates. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(7), 1744-1749
Amiri, R., Nikbakht, A., Rahimmalek, M., Hosseini, H. (2017). Variation in the essential oil composition, antioxidant capacity, and physiological characteristics of Pelargonium graveolens L. inoculated with two species of mycorrhizal fungi under water deficit conditions. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 36(2), 502-515.
Ansari, A., Razmjoo, J., Karimmojeni, H. (2016). Mycorrhizal colonization and seed treatment with salicylic acid to improve physiological traits and tolerance of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) plants grown under drought stress. Acta physiologiae plantarum, 38(2), 34.43.
Arnon, D. I. (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant physiology, 24(1), 1-12
Ayyobi, H., Peyvast, G.-A. (2014). The effects of cow manure vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost on peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) in Torbat-e-Jam and Rasht regions of Iran. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 3(4), 147-153.
Bai, J.-s., Cao, W.-d., Xiong, J., Zeng, N.-h., Gao, S.-j., Katsuyoshi, S. (2015). Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China. Journal of ntegrative griculture, 14(12), 2490-2499.
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and soil, 39(1), 205-207.
Birhane, E., Sterck, F.J., Fetene, M., Bongers, F., Kuyper, T.W. (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and growth of frankincense seedlings under pulsed water availability conditions. Oecologia, 169(4), 895-904.
Chapman, H., Pratt, P. (1961). Methods of Analysis for Soils Plants and Waters (Berkeley: University of California Division of Agricultural Science).
Chinsamy, M., Kulkarni, M. G., Van Staden, J. (2013). Garden-waste-vermicompost leachate alleviates salinity stress in tomato seedlings by mobilizing salt tolerance mechanisms. Plant rowth egulation, 71(1), 41-47.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. t., Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical hemistry, 28(3), 350-356.
Foyer, C. H., Rasool, B., Davey, J. W., Hancock, R. D. (2016). Cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants: a focus on resistance to aphid infestation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 67(7), 2025-2037.
Giovannetti, M., Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New phytologist, 84(3), 489-500.
Goswami, L., Nath, A., Sutradhar, S., Bhattacharya, S. S., Kalamdhad, A., Vellingiri, K., Kim, K.-H. (2017). Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants. Journal of nvironmental anagement, 200, 243-252.
Gutiérrez-Miceli, F., Moguel-Zamudio, B., Abud-Archila, M., Gutiérrez-Oliva, V., Dendooven, L. (2008). Sheep manure vermicompost supplemented with a native diazotrophic bacteria and mycorrhizas for maize cultivation. Bioresource Technology, 99(15), 7020-7026.
Hayman, D. S., Morris, E. J., Page, R. J. (1981). Methods for inoculating field crops with mycorrhizal fungi. Annals of Applied Biology99(3), 247-253.
Hodge, A., Storer, K. (2015). Arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen: implications for individual plants through to ecosystems. Plant and oil, 386(1-2), 1-19.
Hosseinzadeh, S. R., Ahmadpour, R. (2018). Evaluation of vermicompost fertilizer application on growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthetic pigments of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under moisture deficiency conditions. Journal of lant utrition, 41(10), 1276-1284.
Jahantigh, B., Asgharipour, M. R. (2014). Effects of organic fertilizer on yield, yield attributes and essential oil percentage of basil under drought conditions. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(17), 539-543.
Kara, Z., Arslan, D., Güler, M., Güler, Ş. (2015). Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and application of micronized calcite to olive plant: Effects on some biochemical constituents of olive fruit and oil. Scientia Horticulturae, 185, 219-227.
Kong, J., Pei, Z., Du, M., Sun, G., Zhang, X. (2014). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the drought resistance of the mining area repair plant Sainfoin. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 24(4), 485-489.
Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 2nd Addition Academic Press Inc.
Mir, M., Hassan, G., Mir, A., Hassan, A., Sulaimani, M. (2013). Effects of bio-organics and chemical fertilizers on nutrient availability and biological properties of pomegranate orchard soil. Afr J Agric Res, 8(37), 4623-4627.
Moradi-Ghahderijani, M., Jafarian, S., Keshavarz, H. )2017(. Alleviation of water stress effects and improved oil yield in sunflower by application of soil and foliar amendments. Rhizosphere, 4, 54-61
Nelson, D., Sommers, L. (1973). Determination of Total Nitrogen in Plant Material 1. Agronomy Journal, 65(1), 109-112.
Oraki, H., Aghaalikhana, M. (2012). Effect of water deficit stress on proline contents, soluble sugars, chlorophyll and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids. African journal of Biotechnology, 11(1), 164-168.
Osoli, N., Taleshi, K. (2018). Evaluation the effects of biological fertilizers and vermicompost on some of biological characteristics and essential oil quality of fennel plant (Foeniculum vulgare L.) in Khoramabad. Applied Research of Plant Ecophysiology, 4(2), 123-138. (In Persian).
Pessarakli, M. (2016). Handbook of plant and crop stress. CRc press.
Phillips, J.M., Hayman, D. (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British mycological Society, 55(1), 158-161.
Pomeranz, Y. (2013). Food analysis: theory and practice. Springer Science & Business Media.
Rashtbari, M., Alikhani, H. (2012). Effect and efficiency of municipal solid waste compost and vermicompost on morpho-physiological properties and yield of canola under drought stress conditions. International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review, 2(4), 395-402
Samac, D.A., Lamb, J.F.S ., Kinkel, L.L., Hanson, L. (2013).. Effect of wheel traffic and green manure treatments on forage yield and crown rot in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Plant Soil, 372, 349–359
Salehi, A., Tasdighi, H., Gholamhoseini, M. (2016). Evaluation of proline, chlorophyll, soluble sugar content and uptake of nutrients in the German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress and organic fertilizer treatments. Asian Pacific ournal of ropical iomedicine, 6(10), 886-891.
Shiri, M. R & Bahrampour T. (2015). Genotype×environment interaction analysis using GGE biplot in grain maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids under different irrigation conditions. Cereal Research, 5(1): 83-94.
Shukla, A., Kumar, A., Jha, A., Salunkhe, O., Vyas, D. (2013). Soil moisture levels affect mycorrhization during early stages of development of agroforestry plants. Biology and ertility of oils, 49(5), 545-554.
Silva, S.M., Luz, J.M.Q., Nogueira, P.A.M., Blank, A.F., Sampaio, T.S., Pinto, J.A.O., Junior, A.W. (2017). Organo-mineral fertilization effects on biomass and essential oil of lavender (Lavandula dentata L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 103, 133-140.
Song, H., Li, Y., Zhou, L., Xu, Z., Zhou, G. (2018). Maize leaf functional responses to drought episode and rewatering. Agricultural and orest eteorology, 249, 57-70.
Subaedah, S. & Aladin, A. (2016). Fertilization of nitrogen, phosphor and application of green manure of Crotalaria juncea in increasing yield of maize in marginal dry land. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 9, 20-25.
Tejada, M., Gonzalez, J., García-Martínez, A., Parrado, J. (2008). Effects of different green manures on soil biological properties and maize yield. Bioresource Technology, 99(6), 1758-1767.
Tyagi, J., Varma, A., Pudake, R. N. (2017). Evaluation of comparative effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza (Rhizophagus intraradices) and endophyte (Piriformospora indica) association with finger millet (Eleusine coracana) under drought stress. European ournal of oil iology, 81, 1-10.
Vaughan, M. M., Block, A., Christensen, S. A., Allen, L. H., Schmelz, E. A. (2018). The effects of climate change associated abiotic stresses on maize phytochemical defenses. Phytochemistry reviews, 17(1), 37-49.
Vijayalakshmi, T., Varalaxmi, Y., Jainender, S., Yadav, S., Vanaja, M., Jyothilakshmi, N., Maheswari, M. (2012). Physiological and biochemical basis of water-deficit stress tolerance in pearl millet hybrid and parents. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(12), 1730.
Yasari, E., Patwardhan, A. (2007). Effects of (Azotobacter and Azospirillum) inoculants and chemical fertilizers on growth and productivity of canola (Brassica napus L.). Asian J. Plant Sci, 6(1), 77-82.
Zardak, S. G., Dehnavi, M. M., Salehi, A., Gholamhoseini, M. (2018). Effects of using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to alleviate drought stress on the physiological traits and essential oil yield of fennel. Rhizosphere, 6, 31-38.
Zhang, Z., Wang, H., Zhu, J., Suneethi, S., Zheng, J. (2012). Swine manure vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica): the dynamics of biochemical and microbial features. Bioresource technology, 118, 563-571.
Zhao, Q., Gao, X., Ning, X., Lin, M., Cao, W. (2013). Effect of Orychophragmus violaceus cover on growing environment of a peach orchard and quality of peach. Soil and Fertilizer Sciences in China, 1, 93-96.
Zhu, X.-C., Song, F.-B., Liu, S.-Q., Liu, T.-D. (2011). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on photosynthesis and water status of maize under high temperature stress. Plant and oil, 346(1-2), 189-199.
Zuk, M., Richter, D., Matuła, J., Szopa, J. (2015). Linseed, the multipurpose plant. Industrial Crops and Products, 75, 165-177.