Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran..

2 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Horticulture Crops Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy Sciences and Plant Breeding, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran


To identify the limiting factors in grain maize production in Iran, a study has been carried out to particulate effective and influential management factors of this crop’s production in the country. The data come from 95 final reports or extracted articles in Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), undergoing meta-analysis. Based on this study, of all grain maize variation, 2.93% is justified by plant density, 6.81% by planting structure, 11.12% by planting rotation, 2.28% by conservation agriculture, 25.28% by drought stress, 4.99% by cultivar, 4.46% by planting date, and 25.84% by nitrogen fertilizer. Accordingly, 100 thousand plants per hectare, zigzag double rows planting structure, maize-leguminous crops planting pattern, cultivating in residue, optimum irrigation without drought stress (in case of water availability), 700 maturity group cultivar (in case of adequate growing season), planting in May and early August in temperate and tropical climate, and using maximum 100-300 kg urea fertilizer per hectare are recommended to decrease yield gap in grain maize production.


Azizi, F., & Mahrokh, A. (2013). Plant density effect in different planting dates on growth indices, yield and yields components of sweet corn cultivar KSC403su. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10(4), 764-773. (In Persian)
Choucan, R. (2010). Determination of thermal indices and suitability of different maturity groups of maize for different maize growing regions in Iran. Report of Project, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), p. 225. (In Persian)
 Golzardi, F., Baghdadi, A., & Keshavarz Afshar, R. (2017). Alternate furrow irrigation affects yield and water-use efficiency of maize under deficit irrigation. Crop and Pasture Science, 68(8), 726-734.
Huang, S., Zeng, Y., Wu, J. Shi, Q., & Pan, X. (2013). Effect of crop residue retention on rice yield in China: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 154, 188-194.
Izadi, M. H., & Emam, Y. (2010). Effect of planting pattern, plant density and nitrogen levels on grain yield and yield components of maize cv. SC704. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 12(3), 239-251. (In Persian)
Khaliliaqdam, N., & Mosanaiey, H. (2019). Meta-analysis of effects level of nitrogen fertilizer on production of industrial plants. Journal of Crop Production, 12(1), 63-78. (In Persian)
Khaliliaqdam, N., Hasani, R., & Mir Mahmoudi, T. (2018). Meta-analysis of some effective factors on wheat production in Iran. Journal of Crops Improvement, 20(1), 191-204. (In Persian)
 Linquist, B. A., Liu, L., Van Kessel, C., & Van Groenigen, K. J. (2013). Enhanced efficiency nitrogen fertilizers for rice systems: Meta-analysis of yield and nitrogen uptake. Field Crops Research, 154, 246-254.
 Mahrokh, A. (2019). Yield and yield components of four maize hybrids with different stomata resistance in response to drought stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 50(3), 99-110. (In Persian)
Mirzashahi, K., Paknejad, A. R., & Omidvari, Sh. (2016). Effect of rotation, management of nitrogen application, and plant residue on corn (cv. SC704) yield and some soil chemical properties. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 30(2): 115-124. (In Persian)
Modhej, A., Lack, S., & Kiani Ghaleh Sorkhi, F. (2014). Effect of nitrogen and defoliation on assimilate redistribution and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under subtropical conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 84, 765-770.
Mousavi Nik, M. (2011). Density on seed yield and yield components of corn hybrids. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 5(1), 89-98. (In Persian)
Najafi Nejad, H. (2016). Effects of wheat and canola residues management and tillage methods on corn yield and some soil properties. Final Report of Project, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), p. 48. (In Persian)
Nielsen, R. L. (2010). Field drydown of mature corn grain. Purdue University Extension, West Lafayette, Indiana. Retrieved from
Pelzer, E., Hombert, N., Jeuffroy, M., & Makowski, D. (2014). Meta-analysis of the effect of nitrogen fertilization on annual cereal-legume intercrop production. Agronomy Journal, 106, 1775-1786.
Raseduzzaman, M. D., & Jensen, E. S. (2017). Does intercropping enhances yield stability in arable crop production? A meta-analysis. European Journal of Agronomy, 91, 25-33.
Roudy, D. (2007). Maize hybrids after rapeseed and wheat as a second crop in no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Final Report of Project, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), p. 43. (In Persian)
Siadat, S. A., Hemayati, S. S., Fathi, G., & Abdali Mashadi, A. (2009). Determination of the most suitable crop rotation systems in Ahwaz region. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 11(2), 174-192. (In Persian)
Soleimanpour Shams, Sh. (2012). Determination of planting date and plant density on grain yield quantity of early maturity corn varieties Dehghan and Fajr as second crop in the moderate region of Kermanshah province. Final Report of Project, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), p. 28. (In Persian)
Soltani, E., & Soltani, A. (2014). Necessity of using meta-analysis in field crops researches. Journal of Crop Production, 7(3), 203-216. (In Persian)
Soltani, E., & Soltani, A. (2015). Meta-analysis of seed priming on seed germination, seedling emergence and crop yield: Iranian studies. International Journal of Plant Production, 9(3), 1735-8043.
Sutton, A. J., & Higgins, J. P. T. (2008). Recent developments in meta-analysis. Statistic in Medicine, 27, 625-650.
Vanyine, V., Toth, A. S., & Nagy, J. (2012). Effect of nitrogen doses on the chlorophyll concentration, yield and protein content of different genotype maize hybrids in Hungary. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(16), 2546-2552.
Yu, Y., Stomph, T. J., Makowski, D., & Van Der Werf, W. (2015). Temporal niche differentiation increases the land equivalent ratio of annual intercrops: A meta-analysis. Field Crops Research, 184, 133-144.