Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agroecology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agroecology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Assistance Professor, Department of Agroecology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.


In order to investigate the effect under late season cutting off irrigation on biochemical properties and yield of safflower cultivars a split factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was conducted in three replicates at College of Agriculture and Natural resources of Darab, Shiraz University during 2017-2018 growing season. The main factor was irrigation regime in three levels included of normal irrigation, cutting off irrigation in the middle of the flowering, and in the early seed filling stages and sub factor was safflower cultivars including Padideh, Goldasht, Faraman and Isfahan local. Cutting off irrigation in flowering stage decreased 30.37% of chlorophyll a and 25.8% of chlorophyll b, and increased 15.38% carotenoid, 23.38% of catalase activity and 34.94 % of peroxidase activity, which in Goldasht cultivar was more than the other cultivars. Under cutting off irrigation at flowering and seed filling, the highest seed yield was obtained in Goldasht cultivar as 132 and 150.5 g/m2, respectively. Overall, cutting of irrigation at flowering and seed filling stages reduced grain yield by 32.3 and 19.93%, respectively. Under cutting off irrigating, seed yield with chlorophyll a content (r=0.77**), chlorophyll b (r=0.86**), carotenoid (r=0.74**), catalase (r=0.71**), peroxidase (r=0.72**), and harvest index (r=0.83**) had positive and significant correlation. In addition, Goldasht cultivar of safflower could by increasing photosynthetic pigments and enzyme activity under water deficit in late season obtained the more seed yield compared to other cultivars.


Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology. 105, 121-126.
Agastin, P., Kingsley, S.J., & Vivekanandan, M. (2007). Effect of salinity on photosynthesis and biochemical characteristics in mulberry genotypes. Photosynthetica, 38, 287-290.
Akbarian, A., & Arzani, A. (2015). Effects of drought stress on antioxidant enzymes activity in triticale lines. Journal of Crop Breeding, 7(16), 158-167. (In Persian)
Alizadeh, A. (2006). Irrigation Systems Design.  Emam Reza University Pub. 286 pp.
Amiri, A., Sirousmehr, A.R., Yadollahi, P., Asgharipour, A. R., & Esmaeilzadeh Bahbadi, S. (2016). Effect of drought stress and spraying of salicylic acid and chitosan on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes in safflower. Agricultural Crop Manegment, 18(2), 453-466. (In Persian)
Ansari, O., Azadi, M.S., Sharif-Zadeh, F., & Younesi, E. (2013). Effect of hormone priming on germination characteristics and enzyme activity of mountain rye (Secale montanum) seeds under drought stress conditions. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 9(3), 61-71.
Arab, S., Baradaran FiroozAbadi, M., Asghari, H., Gholami, A., & Rahimi, M. (2016). The effect of foliar application of ascorbic acid and sodium nitroprusside on grain protein content, yield and some agronomic traits of safflower under water deficit stress. Journal of Crop Production, 9(1), 69-87.
Araus, J.L., Slafer, M. P., Reynolds, B., & Royo, C. (2002). Plant breeding and water relations in C3 cereals, what should we breed for? Annals of Botany, 89, 925-94.
Arnon, A.N. (1967). Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Journal of Agronomy, 23, 112-121.
Ayumi, T., Masumi, H., & Ryoichi, T. (2004). Chlorophyll metabolism and plant growth. Kagaku Seibutsu, 42, 93-98.
Bagheri, H., Saeedi, G., & Ehsanzade, P. (2006). Evaluation of agronomic traits of selected genotypes from native accessions of safflower in spring and summer sowing dates.  Journal of Sciences and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10, 375-390. (In Persian).
Beheshti, S., & Tadayyon, A. D. (2017). Effects of drought stress and humic acid on some physiological parameters of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Journal of Plant process and Function, 6(19), 1-13
BorisÏev, M., BorisÏev, I., Zupunski, M., Arsenvo, D., Pajevic, S., Curcic, Z., Vasin, J., & Djordjevic, A. (2016). Drought impact is alleviated in sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by foliar application of fullerenol nanoparticles. Plos One, 10, 1-20.
Chalker-Scott, L. (2002). Do anthocyanins function as osmoregulators in leaf tissues? Advances in Botanical Research, 37, 103-106.
Chance, B., & Maehly, A.C. (1955). Assay of catalases and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology, 2, 764-775.
Daneshmand, M., Shirani Rad, A.R., & Ardakani, M.R. (2006). Evaluation of water deficit stress on tolerance of spring rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) genotypes. Agronomy Research, 1, 48-60. (In Persian).
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation). (2018). Plant coefficient of safflower. Rome, Italy.
Ferasat, M., Sajedi, N.A., & Mirzakhani, M. (2012). Effects of Drought Stress on Yield and Yield Components in Safflower Genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 10(2), 346-353. (In Persian).
Flemmer, A.C., Franchini, M.C., & Lindstrom, L.I. (2015). Description of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) phonological growth stages according to the extended BBCH scale. Annals of Applied Biology. 166, 331-339.
Flexas, J., Bota, J., Gales, J., Medrano, H., & Ribas-Carbo, M. (2008). Keeping a positive carbon balance under adverse conditions responses of photosynthesis and respiration to water stress. Physiologic Plant arum, 127,343-35.
Foroozan, K. 2005. Safflower production in Iran (past, now, future). (2005). P. 255-257. In E. Esendel (ed.) Proceedings of the 6th International Safflower Conference. 6-10 June. 2005. Istanbul, Turkey.
Ghosh, P.K., Ajay, K.K., Bandyopadhyay, M.C., Manna, K, G., Mandal, A.K., & Hati, K.M. (2004). Comprative effectiveness of cattle manure, poultry manure, phosphocompost and fertilizer NPK on three cropping system in vertisoils of semi-arid tropics. Dry matter yield, nodulation, chlorophyll content and enzyme activity. Bioresource Technol, 95, 85-93.
Gong, H., Chin, K.Z., Wang, S., & Zhang, C. (2005). Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Journal of Plant Science, 169, 313-321.
Gunes, A., Cicek, N., Inal, A., Alpaslan, M., Eraslan, F., Guneri, E., & Guzelordu, T. (2006). Genotypic response of chickpea (Cicera rietinum L.) cultivars to drought stress implemented at pre-and post anthesis stages and its relations with nutrient uptake and efficiency. Plant and Soil Environent, 52, 868-876.
Inze, D., & Montagu, M.V. (2000). Oxidative stress in plant. Tj International Ltd. Padstow, Cornawall, Great Britain.
Khalili, M., Naghavi, M.R., & Pour-Aboughadareh, A. (2015). Evaluation of grain yield and some of agro-morphological characters in spring safflowers genotypes under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Journal of Crop Breeding, 7(16), 139-148. (In Persian).
Levitt, J. (1980). Responses of plants to environmental stress, Vol.2, Academic Press, New York.
Meerajipour, M., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., Dehdari, A., Farajee, H., & Meerajipour, M. (2012). Effect of drought stress on some physiological characteristics of four spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars in Yasouj. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science, 5(1), 125-134.
Ozturk, E., Ozer, H., & Potal, T. (2008). Growth and yield of safflower genotypes grown under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in a highland environment. Plant ant Soil Environment, 54(10), 453-460.
Pirzad, A., M. R., Shakiba, S., Zehtab-Salmasi, S. A., & Mohammadi, R. (2014); Effects of water stress on some nutrients uptake in Matricaria chamomilla L. Agronomy Journal, 104, 1-7. (In Persian).
Rahbarian, R., Khavari-Nejad, R., Ganjeali, A., Bagheri, A., Najafi, F., & Roshanfekr, M. (2012). Use of biochemical indices and antioxidant enzymes as a screening technique for drought tolerance in Chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 5372-5380.
Rostami, M., Mirzaei, R. & Kafi, M. (2003). Assessment of drought resistance in four safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars at the germination stage. 7th International Conference on the Development of Drylands, 14-17 September 2003, Tehran, Iran.
Shir Esmaeili, G., Maghsoudi Mood, A.A., Khajoueinezhad, Gh., & Abdolshahi, R. (2017). Effect of irrigation cut treatment on yield and yield components of ten safflower cultivars in spring and summer crops. Applied Research in Field Crops, 30(3), 1-17. (In Persian).
Taheri, S., Gholami, A., Abbasdokht, H., & Makarian, H. (2018). Alleviation of water deficit stress effects on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars by seed priming. Crop Improvement (Journal of Agricultural Crops Production), 20(2), 487-501.
Tayebi, A., Afshari, H., Farahvash, F., & Masood Sinki, J. (2012). Effect of drought stress and different planting dates on safflower yield and its components in Tabriz region. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2(3), 445-453. (In Persian).
Wang, L. I., Fan, W., Loescher, W., Dunan, G., Liu, J., Cheng, H., & Luo, S. Li. (2010). Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under heat stress and accelerates recovery in grapevine leaves. BMC Plant Biological, 10, 34-48.
Yadollahi Dehcheshmeh, P., Bagheri, A.A., Amiri, A., & Esmailzadeh, S. (2014). Effects of drought and foliar application on yield and photosynthetic pigments sunflower. Journal of Crop Physiology, 6(21), 73-83. (In Persian)