Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 2Associate Professor, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.


In order to study the effect of bio-fertilizers and putrescine on biomass, nodulation, and some morphological and biochemical traits of vetch(vicia villosa)under rainfed conditions, a factorial experiment has been conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili within 2018-2019. The studied factors include bio-fertilizers(withoutbio-fertilizersas control, application of Rhizobium  (Rhizobium legominuzarum), Mycorrhiza (Glomus mosseae), both application of Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium, Rhizobium and Azotobacter (Azotobacter chrocoocom strain 5), Mycorrhiza and Azotobacter, Rhizobium with Mycorrhiza,and Azotobacter) as well as foliar application of putrescine in three levels (foliar application with water as the control, application of 0.5 and 1 mM putrescine). Results show that both application of Azotobacter with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium and foliar application of 1 mM putrescine increase root weight, leaf share from total biomass, soluble sugars of leaf and stem, and total biomass by 133.33%, 4.5%, 31.94%, 41.82%, and 56.94%, respectively, in comparison with no application of bio-fertilizers and putrescine. Also, application of Azotobacter with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium and foliar application of 1 mM putrescine decrease electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde by 99% and 125.39%, respectively, in comparison with no application of bio-fertilizers and putrescine. It seems that application of bio-fertilizers and foliar application of putrescine can boost total biomass of vica villosa under rainfed condition as it improves both biochemical and morphological traits.


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