Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran.


A field experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of N and P chemical fertilizers with biological N and P fertilizers on competition between cotton and weeds with split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications during the years 2014 and 2015. The main plots consisted of two levels of weed management practices including weed free and weedy check. Sub plots had five treatments included integrated application of biological and chemical fertilizers:1-Control (Without fertilizer) 2-Urea+Triplesuperphosphate (TSP) 3-Nitroxin+50% urea+100% TSP 4-100% urea+Barvar2 +50% TSP 5-Nitroxin+Barvar2+50% urea+50% TSP. In the first year, control of weeds increased LAI and number of boll per plant to 34 and 22 percent, respectively and cotton yield increased by 67 percent in the first year and 50 percent in the second year. Fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on stem length, LAI, number of sympodial branches and boll per plant, and yield of cotton. Under weed interference condition, use chemical fertilizers alone reduced cotton growth and yield due to increasing competitive ability of weeds. But reducing urea consumption by half and replace it with nitroxin, increased cotton yield by 61% compared to the chemical fertilizer treatment due to increasing number of boll per plant. This result indicates that the use of biological fertilizers reduce the negative effects of chemical fertilizers and increase crop competitiveness against weeds


Baberi, P., Cozzani, A., Macchia, M. & Bonari, E. (1998). Size sample and composition of the weed seed bank under different management systems for continuous maize cropping. Weed Research, 33(5), 319-334.
Blackshaw, R.E., Brandt, R.N., Janzen, H.H., Entz, T., Grant, G.A. & Derksen, D.A. (2003). Differential response of weed species to added nitrogen. Weed Science, 51(4), 532-539.
Blackshaw, R.E., Molnar, L.J. & Larney, F.J. (2005). Fertilizer, manure and compost effects on weed growth and competition with winter wheat in western Canada. Crop Protection, 24(11), 971-980.
Boddy, R.M. & Dobereiner, J. (1988). Nitrogen fixation associated with grasses and cereals: Recent results and perspectives for future research. Plant and Soil, 108(1): 53-65.
Carlson, H.L. & Hill, J.E. (1985). Wild oat (Avena fatua) Competition with spring wheat: effects of nitrogen fertilization. Weed Science, 34(1), 29-33.
Christensen, S., Heisel, T. & Walter, A.W. (1996). Patch sparing in cereals. In The Second International Weed Control Congress. pp. 963-968.
Davis, A.S. & Liebman, M. (2001). Nitrogen source influences wild mustard growth and competitive effect on sweet corn. Weed Science, 49(4), 558-566.
Frick, B. & Thomas, A.G. (1992). Weed surveys in different tillage systems in southwestern Ontario field crops. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 72(4), 1337-1347.
Ghasemi, M., Moghaddasi, M.S. & Omidi, A.H. (2012). The Effects of Biological and Chemical Nitrogen Fertilizers on Agronomical Traits of winter Safflower cultivars in Saveh region of Iran. Annals Biological Research, 3(11), 5141-5144.
Ghazan Shahi, J. (1997). Soil and Plant Analysis. Aeizch Press, Iran. 311pp. (in Persian)
Jafaraghaei, M. & Jalali, A.H. (2014). The effects of different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in early cotton (Gossypium hirsutumL.) cultivar. Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh&Sazandegi), 102, 205-212. (in Persian)
Kaur, S., Kaur, R. & Chauchan, B.S. (2018). Understanding crop-weed-fertilizer-water interactions and their implications for weed management in agricultural systems. Crop Protection, 103, 65-72.
Mahar, G.M., Oad, F.C., Buriro, U.A. & Solangi, G.S. (2007). Effect of Post-Emergence Herbicides on the Growth and Yield of Up-Land Cotton. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 6(8), 1282-1286.
Manalil, S., Coast, O., Werth, J. & Chauhana, B.S. (2017). Weed management in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) through weed-crop competition: A review. Crop Protection, 95, 53-59.
Mansouri, M.S., Moradi, M., Khalediyan, F. & Khalediyan, M.S. (2015). Effect of weed interference and application of" Barvar-2" biofertilizer on yield and canopy of potato.  6th Iranian Weed Science Congress, pp: 593-596 (in Persian)
Mohammadi, S. & Baghestani, M.A. (2014). Integrated weed management effects on the growth characteristics and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Iranian Journal of Cotton Researches, 2(1), 93-104. (in Persian)
Mondal, T., Kumar Datta, J. & Kumar Mondal, N. (2017). Chemical fertilizer in conjunction with biofertilizer and vermicompost induced changes in morpho-physiological and bio-chemical traits of mustard crop. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 16(2), 135-144.
Moradi Talavat, M.R. & Siadat, S.A. (2013).Growth and nitrogen use efficiency response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) to increase nitrogen levels. Journal  of  Crop Improvement (Journal of Agriculture), 15(2), 111-124. (in Persian)
Moradi Telavat, M.R., Siadat, S.A., Fathi, Gh., Zand, A. & Alamisaid, Kh. (2010). Effect of nitrogen and herbicide levels on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) competition ability against wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Electronic Journal Crop Production, 2(3), 135-150. (in Persian)
Mousavi, K., Nassiri Mahalati, M., Rahimian, H., Ghanbari, A., Banayan-Aval, M. & RashedMohasel, M.H. (2005). Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) competition. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 1(2), 107-120. (in Persian)
Namvar, A. & Khandan, T. (2013). Response of wheat to mineral nitrogen fertilizer and biofertilizer (Azotobacter sp and Azospirillum sp.) inoculation under different levels of weed interference. Ekologija, 59(2), 85-94.
Nasirinejad. M.A.,Bagheri, A. & Jafari, A. (2012). Evaluation the effect of C3 and C4 weeds and different levels of nitrogen on growth and biomass production of sunflower (Heliantheus annus L.). Plant Ecophysiology, 4(2), 14-24 (in Persian)
O'Donovan, J.T., Mandrew, D.W. & Thomas, A.G. (1997). Tillage and nitrogen influence weed  population dynamics in barley. Weed Technology, 11(3), 502-509.
Raimondi, M.A., Oliveira Junior, R.S., Constantin, J., Franchini, L.H.M., Blainski, E. & Raimondi, R.T. (2017).Weed interference in cotton plants grown with reduced spacing in the second harvest season. Rev. Caatinga, 30(1), 1-12.
Roush, M.L. & Radosevich, S.R. (1985). Relationships between growth and competitiveness of four annual weeds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 895-905.
Samavatian, M., Barzali, M. & Rafiei Keh Roodi, Z. (2018). Evaluation of Treflan application manner on weeds control under different tillage methods in cotton cultivation (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Iranian Journal of Cotton Research, 5(2), 53-74. (in Persian)
Shaheen, S.M., Tsadilas, Ch.D. & Stamatiadis, S. (2007). Inorganic phosphorus forms in some entisols and aridisols of Egypt. Geoderma, 142(2), 217-225.
Sharma, A.K. (2004). Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. (1st ed.). Agrobios press, India, 201-209.
Sharma, A.R. (2014). Integrated weed management in conservation agriculture systems. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 46(1), 23-30.
Tanveer, A., Chaudhry, N.H, Ayub, M. & Ahmad, R. (2003). Effect of cultural and chemical weed control methods on weed population and yield of cotton. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 35(2), 161-166.
Varsha, N., Ramprakash, T., Madhavi, M. & Suneetha Devi, K.B. (2019). Influence of weed control practices on nutrients uptake in cotton plant. Journal of Research in Weed Science, 2(2), 115-126.
Velayati, M., Zamani, G.H. & Jami AL-Ahmadi, M. (2010). Effect of different densities of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium album) on some cotton growth characteristics in Birjand condition. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 8 (1), 147-156. (in Persian)
Zahir, A.Z., Arshad, M. & Frankenberger, W.T. (2004). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria:  applications and perspectives in agriculture. Advances in Agronomy (Academic press), USA, 81, 97-168.