Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran.


Considering the limited water resources in Iran, utilization of modern methods of water conservation and preservation, such as the application of superabsorbent polymers in the soil, is one of the confront approaches of water deficit. For this purpose, in order to investigate the effect of superabsorbent on vegetative and reproductive growth of Page Mandarin in drought stress condition, a factorial experiment bases on the completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in 2016 at the Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center of Ramsar. Factors were consisted of three levels of water stress (100, 75 and 50% of field capacity) and superabsorbent (0, 0.25 and 0.5% wt). The results showed that by increasing of water stress, amounts of electrolyte leakage, proline, fruit cracking and titratable acidity were increased. As well as 50% of field capacity level, 0.5% superabsorbent application was caused significantly increase leaf relative water content, total chlorophyll content, leaf water potential 60%, 15%, 23% and 87.5% and decrease electrolyte leakage and total soluble solids 65% and 22% respectively, compared with condition of treatment without applying superabsorbent. So, it seems that superabsorbent can increase the plant tolerance in counteracting moisture stress by maintaining unusable water.


Abd El-Rehim, H.A. (2005). Swelling of radiation cross linked acryl amide-based microgels and their potential applications. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 74, 111-117. 
Ahmadi, A. & Ceiocemardeh, A. (2004). Effect of drought stress on soluble carbohydrate, chlorophyll and Proline in four adopted wheat cultivars with various climate of Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 35(3), 753-763.
 Al-Humaid, A.I. & Moftah, A. (2007). Effects of Hydrophilic Polymer on the Survival of Buttonwood Seedlings Grown Under Drought Stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 30(1), 53-66.
Allen, D.J. & Ort, D.R. (2001). Impacts of chilling temperatures on photosynthesis in warm-climate plants. Trends in Plant Science. 6(1), 36-41.
Al-Rousan, W.M.M., Ajo, R.Y., Angor, M.M., Osaili, T. & Bani-Hani, N.M. (2012). Impact Pf different irrigation level and harvesting periods on the quantity and quality of navel oranges (Citrus sinensis) and fruit juice. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10(2), 115-11.
Anjum, Sh., Xie, X.Y., Wang, L.C., Farrukh Saleem, M., Man, C. & Lei, W. (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(9), 2026-2032.
Arbona, V., Iglesias, D.J., Jacas, J., Primo-Millo, E., Talon, M. & Aurelio, G.C. (2005). Hydrogel substrate amendment alleviates drought effects on young citrus plants. Plant Soil, 270, 73-82.
Barakat, M.R., El-Kosary, S., Borham, T.I. & Abd-ElNafea, M.H. (2015). Effect of hydrogel soil addition under different irrigation levels on gandnain banana plants. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants, 7(1), 19-28. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.jhsop. 2015.7.1.1152.
Chachin, k. (1986). measurement methods for concentrations of organic acids, plant hormones, and enzyme activities in fruit, (p. 155-177). In: s. Nakagawa (Ed.). Laboratory manual for horticultural science. Yokendo, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
Chehaba, H., Tekayab, M., Mechrib, B., Jemaic, A., Guiaaa, M., Mahjouba, Z., Boujnaha, D., Laamaria, S., Chihaouia, B., Zakhamad, H., Hammamib, M. & Giudicee, T. (2017). Effect of the Super Absorbent Polymer Stockosorb®on leaf turgorpressure, tree performance and oil quality of olive trees cv. Chemlaligrown under field conditions in an arid region of Tunisia. Agricultural Water Management, 192, 221-23.
El-hady, O.A & Wanas, Sh.A. (2006). Water and fertilizer use efficiency by cucumber grown under stress on sandy soil treated with acryl amid hydrogels. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2 (12), 1293-1297.
Elsheery, N. I. & Cao, K. F. (2008). Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and osmotic adjustment in two mango cultivars under drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30, 769-777.
Fallahi, H.R., Taherpour Kalantari, R., Aghhavani-Shajari, M. & Soltanzadeh, M.G. (2015). Effect of Super Absorbent Polymer and Irrigation Deficit on Water Use Efficiency, Growth and Yield of Cotton. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 7(3), 338-344. DOI: 10.15835/nsb.7.3.9626
Ferrat, I.L. & Lovat, C.J. (1999). Relation between relative water content, Nitrogen pools and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. acutifolius, Gay during water deficit .Crop Science, 39, 467-474.
Fifaei, R., Fotouchi Ghazvini, R., Golein, B. & Hamidoghli, U. (2015). Effect of drought stress on proline, soluble sugars, malondialdehyde and pigments content in northern commercial Citrus rootstocks. Agricultural Crop Management, 17(4), 939- 952.
Fotouhi Ghazvini, R. & Fatahi Moghaddam, J. (2006). Citrus cultivation in Iran. Guilan University Press.
Garcia-Tejero, I., Jimenez-Bocanega, J.A., Martinez, G., Romero, R., Duran-Zuazo, V.H. & Muriel-Fernandez, J. (2010). Positive impact of regulated deficit irrigation on yield and fruit quality in a commercial citrus orchard (Citrus sinensis L.) Osbeck, cv. Salustiano. Agricultural Water Management, 97(5), 614-622.
Gomesa, F.P., Olivab, M., Mielkea, M.A., Almeidaa, A.A.F., Aquinob, L.A. (2010). Osmotic adjustment, proline accumulation and cell membrane stability in leaves of Cocos nucifera submitted to drought stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 126, 379-384.
Gómez-del-Campo, M. (2013). Summer deficit irrigation in a hedgerow olive orchard cv. Arbequina: relationship between soil and tree water status, and growth and yield components. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(2), 547-557.
Guichard, S., Bertin, G. & Leonardi, G. (2001). Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon flux. Agronomie, 21, 385- 392. DOI: 10.1051/agro:2001131
Hoffmann, H., Communications, B., Lacey, K. & Wood, H. (2009). Annual Report of California University for Citrus disorders. Department of Agriculture and Food, 2, 1-54.
Jiao, J., Chen, K. & Yi, C. (2010). Effects of soil moisture content on growth,physiological and biochemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas L. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 30, 4460-4466.
Jie, Z., Yuncong, Y., Streeter, J.G. & Ferree, D.C. (2010). Influence of soil drought stress on photosynthesis, carbohydrates and the nitrogen and phophorus absorb in different section of leaves and stem of Fugi/M.9EML, a young apple seedling. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(33), 5320-5325.
Korkmaz, A., Korkmaz, Y. & Demirkiran, A.R. (2010). Enhancing chilling stress tolerance of pepper seedling by exogenous application of 5- aminolevolinic acid. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 67, 495-501.
 Laribi, A.I., Palou, L., Intrigliolo, D.S., Nortes, P.S, Rojas-Argudo, C., Taberner, V., Bartual, J. & Pérez-Gago, M.B. (2013). Effect of sustained and regulated deficit irrigation on fruit quality of pomeganate cv. Mollar de Elche at harvest and during cold storage. Agricultural Water Management, 125, 61-70.
Liu, X., Li, F., Yang, Q. & Wang, X. (2016). Effects of alternate drip irrigation and superabsorbent polymers on growth and water use of young coffee tree. Journal of Environmental Biology, 37, 485-491.
Lu, P.L. & Lin, C.H. (2011). Physiology of fruit cracking in wax apple (Syzygium samarangense). Journal of Plant Science, 8, 70–76. doi:
Mascher, R., Nagy, E., Lippmann, B., Hornlein, S., Fischer, S., Scheiding, W., Neagoe, A. & Bergmann, H. (2005). Improvement of tolerance to paraquat and drought in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by exogenous 2-aminoethanol: effect of suoeroxide dimutas activity and chloroplast ultra-structure. Plant Science, 68, 691-698.
Montazer, A.A. (2008). Study the effect of stockosorb super absorption polymer on the flow advance time and infiltration parameters in furrow irrigation. Journal of Water and Soil. 22(2), 341-356. https:// doi: 10.22067/jsw.v0i22.1034
Moriana, A., Perez-Lopez, D., Prieto, M.H., Ramirez-Santa-Pau. M. & Perez-Rodriguez, J.M. (2012). Midday stem water potential as a useful tool for estimating irriagtion requirements in olive trees. Agicural Water Management, 112, 43–54.
Nair, V., O'neil, C.L. & Wang, P.G. (2008). Malondialdehyde" encyclopedia of reagents for organic synthesis. (Pp. 66-77). John wiley and Sons. New York.
Nazarli, H., Zardashti, M.R., Darvishzadeh, R. & Najafi, S. (2010). The effect of water stress and polymer on water use eficiency, yield and several morphological traits of sunflower under geenhouse condition. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(4), 53-58.
Ortuno, M.F., Alarcon, j.j., Colars, E.N. & Torrecillas, A. (2005). Interpreting trunk diameter in young lemon trees under deficit irrigation. Plant science, 167(2), 275- 280.
Palou, L., Intrigliolo, D.S., Nortes, P.S., Rojas-Argudo, C., Taberner, V., Bartual, J. & Pérez-Gago, M.B. (2013). Effect of sustained and regulated deficit irrigation on fruit quality of pomegranate cv. Mollar de Elche at harvest and during cold storage. Agricultural Water Management, 125, 61-70. 2013.04.009
Perez-Perez, JG., Romero, P., Navarro, J.M. & Botia, P. (2008). Response of sweet orange cv ‘Lane late’ to deficit-irrigation strategy in two rootstocks. II: Flowering, fruit growth, yield and fruit quality. Irrigation Science, 26, 519-529.
Pietrini, F., Chaudhuri, D., Thapliyal, A.P. & Massacci, A. (2005). Analysis of chlorophyllfluorescents in mandarin leaves during photo-oxidative cold shock and recovery. Agriculture, Ecosysyems and Environment, 106, 189-198.
Ranjbar, A. (2017). Comparative Study on the Effect of Water Stress and Rootstock on Photosynthetic Function in Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Trees. Journal of Nuts, 8(2), 151-159
Sayyari, M. & Ghanbari, F. (2012). Effects of Super Absorbent Polymer A200 on the Growth, Yield and Some Physiological Responses in Sweet Pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.) Under Various Irrigation Regimes. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 1(1), 1‐11.
Shi, Y., Li, J., Shao, J., Deng, S., Wang, R., Li, N., Sun, J., Zhang, H., Zheng, X., Zhou, D., Huttermann, A. & Chen, S. (2010). Effect of stockosorb and luquasorb polymers on salt and drought tolerance of Populus popularis. Scientia Horticulturae, 124, 268-273.
Sircelj, H., Tausz, M., Gill, D. & Batic, F. (2007). Detecting different levels of drought stress in apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) with selected biochemical and physiological parameters. Scientia Horticulturae. 113(4), 362- 369.
Szwonek, E. (2012). Impact of a superabsorbent gel and organis mineral fertilizer on growth, yiels ans quality of sweet cherry trees. Acta Horticulture, 940, 415-421. https:// doi. 10.17660/ActaHortic.2012.940.60
Talaii, A. & Asadzadeh, A. (2005). Scrutiny of the effect of superabsorbent in reducing dryness olive trees. The third seminar courses and agricultural applications superabsorbent. Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. (in Persian).
Waseem, M., Asghar Ali, M., Tahir, M.A., Nadeem, M., Ayub, AT., Ahmad, R. & Hussain, M. (2011). Mechanism of drought tolerance in plant and its management through different methods. Continental Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (1), 10-25. 10.5281/zenodo.839955.
Wu, L., Liu, M. & Liang, L. (2008). Preparation and properties of a double-coated slow-release NPK compound fertilizer with superabsorbent & water retention. Bio resource Technolog, 99, 547-554.
Xoconostle-Cazares, B., Ramirez-Ortega, F.A., Flores-Elenes, L., a& Ruiz-Medrano, R. (2010). Drought tolerance in crop plants. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 5(5), 241-256.
Yang, F., Hu, J., Li, J., Wu, X. & Qian, Y. (2009). Chitosan enhances leaf membrane stability and antioxidant enzyme activities in apple seedlings under drought stress. The Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 58,131-136.
Yazdani, F., Akbari, G. & Behbahani, V. (2007). Effect of amount of super absorbent polymer and drought stress levels on yield and yield components of soybeen. Research and Development Journal, 15, 167-174. (in Persian)