Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


In order to study the effect of N rate and plant density on grain yield and N use efficiency of blessed thistle, a field study ‎was carried out in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments in three replications‏ ‏at ‎Research Field of Tarbiat Modares University in 2013 and 2014 growing seasons.‎‏ ‏Treatments comprised of four pure N ‎rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1)‎‏ ‏from urea source and five plant densities (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-2).‎‏ ‏The main ‎effects of nitrogen and plant density were significant for grain yield, NUE, plant height, SPAD value, root to shoot weight ‎ratio and N content of grain. Increasing N rates increased grain yield, SPAD value, plant height and grain N, but agronomic ‎efficiency, N recovery and utilization were decreased by increasing of N rate; Higher densities resulted in decreased grain ‎yield and chlorophyll index, while improved NUE throughout increment of root to shoot weight ratio and plant height‏.‏‎ ‎Novel findings of this study could be used for N management. ‎


Abassi, M. K., Kazmi M. & Hussan, F. (2005). Nitrogen use efficiency and herbage production of an established grass sward in relation to moisture and nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 28(10), 1693-1708.
Abbadi, J. & Gerendas, J. (2009). Nitrogen use efficiency of safflower as compared to sunflower. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32(6), 929-945.
Ali, A. & Ullah, S. (2012). Effect of nitrogen on achene protein, oil, fatty acid profile, and yield of sunflower hybrids. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72(4), 564-568.
Berti, M. T., Johnson B. L., Gesch R. W. & Forcella, F. (2008). Cuphea nitrogen uptake and grain yield response to nitrogen Fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 100(3), 628-634.
Cavero, J. Gil Ortega R. & Gutierrez, M. (2001). Plant density affects yield, yield components, and color of direct-grained paprika pepper. Horticultural Science, 36(1), 76-79.
Chrysargyris, A., Panayiotou C. & Tzortzakis, N. (2016). Nitrogen affected plant growth, essential oil composition and antioxidant status of lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia Mill). Industrial Crops and Products, 83, 577-586.
Dong, H. Kong X., Li W., Tang W. & Zhang, D. (2010). Effects of plant density and nitrogen and potassium fertilization on cotton yield and uptake of major nutrients in two fields with varying fertility. Field Crops Research, 119(1), 106-113.
Dordas, C. (2017). Nitrogen nutrition index and leaf chlorophyll concentration and its relationship with nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40(8), 1190-1203.
Dordas, C. & Sioulas, C. (2008). Safflower yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency response to nitrogen fertilization under rainfed conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 27(1), 75-85.
Ebrahimizade, M. A. & Hassanli, A. M. (2008). Investigation of corn root development and its effect on water saving in different irrigation methods using effluent in Korbal semi arid plain, Fars province. Journal of Water and Soil Science (JWSS), 12 (44), 69-84. (in Persian)
Fageria, N. K. & Baligar, V. C. (2003). Fertility management of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Handbook of Soil Acidity, 359-385.
Fageria N. K., Baligar, V. C. & Li, Y. C. (2008). Methodology for evaluation of lowland rice genotypes for nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 26(6), 1315-1333.
Ghaderi, A., Moghaddam, M., Mehdizadeh, L. & Ebrahimi, H. (2016). The effects of different levels of nitrogen and plant density on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, nitrogen use and uptake efficiency in cumin (Cuminum cyminum) Fruit. Plant Production Technology, 8(2), 153-165. (in Persian)
Glynn, C., Herms D. A., Orians C. M., Hansen R. C. & Larsson, S. (2007). Testing the growth–differentiation balance hypothesis: dynamic responses of willows to nutrient availability. New Phytologist‎, 176(3), 623-634.
15. Habtegebrial, K., Singh, B. R. & Haile, M. (2007). Impact of tillage and nitrogen fertilization on yield, nitrogen use efficiency of tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and soil properties. Soil Tillage Research, 94(1), 55-63.
Horn, G., Kupfer, A., Rademacher, A., Kluge, H., Kalbitz, J. & Eißner, H. (2015). Cnicus benedictus as a potential low input oil crop. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 117(4), 561-566.
Ibrahim, H. M. (2012). Response of some sunflower hybrids to different levels of plant density. APCBEE Procedia, 4, 175-182.
Jiang, W., Wang, K.., Wu, Q., Dong, S., Liu, P. & Zhang, J. (2013). Effects of narrow plant spacing on root distribution and physiological nitrogen use efficiency in summer maize. Crop Journal, 1(1), 77-83.
Johnson, J. M. F. & Gesch R. W. (2013). Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility. Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 684-691.
20. Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S. M. & Jamshid Eyni, M. (2014). Uptake efficiency of nitrogen in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by irrigation levels and high corm density. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 30(4), 441-456. (in Persian)
López-Bellido, F. J., López-Bellido L. & López-Bellido, R. J. (2005). Competition, growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L). European Journal of Agronomy, 23(4), 359-378.
Momoh, E. (2001). Growth and yield responses to plant density and stage of transplanting in winter oil-grain rape (Brassica napus L). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 186(4), 253-259.
Morcuende, R., Czechowski T., Fritz C., Osuna D., Palacios-rojas N., Schindelasch D., Thimm O., Udvardi M. K. & Stitt, M. (2004). Genome-wide reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism, protein synthesis, cellular growth processes, and the regulatory infrastructure of Arabidopsis in response to nitrogen. Plant Physiology, 136 (1), 2483-2499.
Rathke, G., Behrens T. & Diepenbrock, W. (2006). Integrated nitrogen management strategies to improve grain yield, oil content and nitrogen efficiency of winter rape (Brassica napus L.): A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 117(2-3), 80-108.
Zhu, X., Zhang J., Zhang Z., Deng A. & Zhang, W. (2016). Dense planting with less basal nitrogen fertilization might benefit rice cropping for high yield with less environmental impacts. European Journal of Agronomy, 75, 50-59.