Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aboureyhan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Entomology and Plant Diseases, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.


This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different seed coating treatments on the seed germination of canola under drought and salinity stresses. In order to, two factorial experiments were conducted based on completely randomized design with four replications in laboratory. In both experiments, one of the factors were 10 different seed coating treatments. The second factor was different in two experiments: in the first experiment, the levels of drought stress of 0, -0.8, -1, and -1.2 MPa were considered, and in the second experiment, the levels of salinity stress of 0, 7, 14 and 21 ds/m NaCl were investigated. Results indicated that the lowest hydrotime constant (θH) were observed in T9 (22.627 MPa h), T3 (22.538 MPa h), and T6 (22.263 MPa h). The lowest base water potential (Ψb (50)) were belonged to T4 (-1.332 MPa) and T1 (-1.324 MPa). The maximum of germination percentage under salinity stress (Gmax) was observed in T2 (86.75%). The highest threshold to salinity tolerance (Xo) was belonged to T3 (16.38 ds/m). The highest germination rate was belonged to T3 in all levels of salinity. Totally, seed coating treatments of T3, T6 and T9 were the best treatments under drought stress and T3 was the best treatment under salinity stress.


Almansouri, M., Kinet, J. M. & Lutts, S. (2001). Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat. Plant and Soil, 231, 243-254.
Alvarado, V. & Bradford, K. J. (2002). Hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Plant, Cell and Environment , 25, 1061-1069.
Amirjani, M. R. (2010). Effect of NaCl on Some Physiological Parameters of Rice. European Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(1), 6-16.
Ashraf, M. & Rauf, H. (2001). Inducing salt tolerate in maize (Zea mays L.) throght seed priming with chloride salts: growth and ion transport at early growth stages. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 23, 407-414.
Basra, S. M. A., Ashraf, M., Iqbal, N., Khaliq, A. & Ahmad, R. (2004). Physiological and biochemical aspects of pre-sowing heat stress on cottonseed. Seed Science and Technology, 32, 765-774.
Basra, S. M. A., Farooq, M. & Tabassum, R. (2005). Physiological and biochemical aspects of seed vigour enhancement treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology, 33, 623-628.
Bewley, J. D., Bradford, K. J., Hilhorst, H. W. & Monogaki, H. (2013). Seeds: Physiology Development, Germination and Dormancy (3th ed). Springer, New York, 445p. 
Bradford, K. J. (1990). A water relations analysis of seed germination rates. Plant Physiology, 94, 840-849.
Bradford, K. J. (2002). Applications of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Science, 50, 248-260.
Bradford, K. J. & Still, D. W. (2004). Application of hydrotime analysis in seed testing. Seed Science and Technology, 26, 74-85.
Cardoso, V. J. M. & Bianconi, A. (2013). Hydrotime model can describe the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds to temperature and reduced water potential. Biological Science, 35, 255-261.
Dahal, P. & Bradford, K. J. (1990). Effects of priming and endosperm integrity on seed germination rates of tomato genotypes. II. Germination at reduced water potential. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 1441-1453.
Demir Kaya, M., Okçu Gamze Atak, M., Çikili, Y. & Kolsarici, O. (2006). Seed treatment to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 24, 291-295.
Farzane, S. & Soltani, E. (2011). Relationships between Hydrotime Parameters and Seed Vigor in Sugar Beet. Seed Science and Biotechnology, 5(1), 7-10.
Finch-Savage, W. E. & Leubner-Metzger, G. (2006). Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytologist, 171, 501-523.
Foti, S., Cosentino, S. L., Patane, C. & Agosta, G. M. D. (2002). Effects of osmoconditioning upon seed germination of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under low temperatures. Seed Science and Technology, 30, 521-533.
Fujikara, Y., Kraak, H. L., Basra, A. S. & Karssen, C. M. (1993). Hydropriming, a simple and inexpensive priming method. Seed Science and Technology, 21, 642-693.
Gummerson, R. J. (1986). The effect of constant temperature and osmotic potential on the germination of sugarbeet. Journal of Experimental Botany, 37, 729-714.
Hanslin, H. M. & Eggen, T. (2005). Salinity tolerance during germination of seashore halophytes and salt tolerant grass cultivars. Seed Science Research, 15, 43-50.
Harris, D., Pathan, A. K., Gothkar, P., Joshi, A., Chivasa, W. & Nyamudeza, P. (2001). On-farm seed priming: using participatory methods to revive and refine a key technology. Agricultural Systems, 69, 151-164.
Kader, M. A. & Jutzi, S. C. (2004). Effects of thermal and salt treatments during imbibition on germination and seedling growth of sorghum at 42/19˚C. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 190, 35-38.
Kephart, K. D. & Wichman, D. M. (2004). Polimer seed coating effect on plant establishment and yield of fall seeded canola in the northern Great plains. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 84, 955-963.
Larsen, S. U., Bailly, C., Côme, D. & Corbineau, F. (2004). Use of the hydrothermal timemodel to analysis interacting effects of waterand temperature on germination of three grass species. Seed Science Research, 14, 35-50.
Manga, V. K. (1998). Germination response of pearl millet genotypes to simulated drought condition, Crop, growth of soybean under different water potentials. Seed Science Research, 26, 131-133.
McDonald, M. B. (1999). Seed deterioration: physiology, repair and assessment. Seed Science and Technology, 27, 177-237.
McDonald, M. B. & Copland, O. L. (1997). Seed production principles and practices (2nd ed). Springer, New York, 749p.
Misra, N. & Dwivedi, U. N. (2004). Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance of green cultivars. Plant Science, 166, 1135-1142.
Munns, R. (2002). Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Journal of Plant Cell Environ, 25, 239-250.
Murungu, F. S., Nyamugafata, P., Chiduza, C., Clark, L. J. & Whalley, W. R. (2003). Effects of seed priming aggregate size and soil matric potential on emergence of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.). Soil and Tillage Research, 74, 161-168.
Rajaravindran, M. & Natarajan, S. (2012). Effects of Salinity Stress on Growth and antioxidant enzymes of the Halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. International Journal of Research in Plant Science, 2(1), 23-28.
Rosalind, A. B., Oosterhuis, D. M. & Mauromoustakos, A. (1994). Growth dynamics of the cotton plant during water deficit stress. Agronomy Journal, 86, 788-795.
Saadat, F., Ehteshami, S. M. R., Asghari, J. & Rabiee, M. (2015). Effect of seed coating with growth promoting bacteria and mocronutrients on quantitative and qualitative yield of forage corn (Zea mays L. SC. 640). Iranian Journal of Filed crop Science, 46(3), 485-496. (In Persian).
Sadat-Noori, S. A., Ramshini, H. A., Soltani, E., Sadati, S. & Foghi, B. (2015). A new index to evaluate salinity tolerance at the germinationstage based on the parameters of non-linear regressions: Trachyspermum copticum as case study. Seed Science and Technology, 43, 145-155.
Saleh, B. (2013). Water Status and Protein Pattern Changes Towards Salt Stress in Cotton. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 9(1), 113-123.
Sevengor, S., Yasar, F., Kusvuran, S. & Ellialtioglu, S. (2011). The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes of pumpkin seedling. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(21), 4920-4924.
Soltani, E. & Farzaneh, S. (2014). Hydrotime analysis for determination of seed vigour in cotton. Seed Science and Technology, 42, 260-273.
Soltani, E. & Soltani, A. (2015). Meta-analysis of seed priming effects on seed germination, seedling emergence and crop yield: Iranian studies. International Journal of Plant Production, 9(3), 413-432.
Soltani, E., Soltani, A., Galeshi, S., Ghaderi-Far, F. & Zeinali, E. (2013). Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence. Planta Daninha, 31, 267-279.
Soltani, E., Soltani, A. & Oveisi, M. (2013). Modelling Seed Aging Effect on Wheat Seedling Emergence in Drought Stress: Optimizing Germin Program to Predict Emergence Pattern. Journal of Crop Improvement, 15(2), 147-160. (In Persian).
Varier, A., Vari, A. K. & Dadlani, M. (2010). The subcellular basis of seed priming. Current Science, 99, 450-456.
Windauer, L., Altuna, A. & Benech-Arnold, R. (2007). Hydritime analysis of Lesquerella fendleri seed germination responses to priming treatments. Industrial Crops and Products, 25, 70-74.
Zhani, K.,  Mariem, B. F., Fardaous, M. & Cherif, H. (2012). Impact of Salt stress (NaCl) on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 8(4), 236-252.