Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ms.c. Student of Agroecology, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Ph.D. student of crops Physiology, Department of Plant Production and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agricultural Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Ecology of Plants, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. E-mail address:

4 Associate Professor of Crops Physiology, Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.


In order to evaluating effect of smoke-water and urea fertilizer on some growth indices, grain yield and yield components of wheat, a field experiment was conducted as a split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The experiment was conducted during the season of 2015-2016 at Razi University Research Station, Iran. The experimental treatments were different levels of urea fertilizer application (included 90, 180, 300 and 360 kg ha-1) as main plot and leaf foliar application with different concentrations of smoke-water (included 0, 0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% v/v) as sub plot. The results showed that smoke-water significantly improved all evaluated traits and increased wheat grain yield compared to control treatment in all urea fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (922 g m-2) was obtained in application of 350 kg ha-1 urea and smoke-water at concentration of 1% v/v and the lowest grain yield (339 g m-2) was related to application 90 kg ha-1 urea and foliar with distilled water. The grain yield improved 15.22%, 11.36%, 7.18% and 7.67% by application of 90, 180, 300 and 360 urea kg ha-1 respectively, in smoke-water 1% concentration compared to the control treatment. It seems that smoke-water via improve increasing nitrogen efficiency could increase growth indices and grain yield of wheat.


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