Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

2 Lorestan University

3 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) on alleviation of the drought-reverse effects in two Althernanthera genotypes “Entire leaf” and “Undulated leaf”. Pot experiment, consists of equal parts of soil, sand and manure, was carried out as factorial based on a completely randomized design with six replications. After plants establishment, 0, 1 and 2 mM of silicon were weekly sprayed on plants grown under drought stress conditions (90% field capacity (FC), 75 and 55 percent FC). Si treatment started one week before the beginning of drought stress. Samples were taken after 12 weeks of treatment. The analysis of variation showed that increasing drought stress significantly affected all morphological (plant height, stem diameter and root length), physiological (fresh and dry weight of stem and root, relative water content, electrolyte leakage) and biochemical (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline and anthocyanin) characteristics. Whereas, silicon application (especially with 2 mM concentration) alleviated the stress effects and improved growth parameters. Electrolyte leakage as an indicator of cell membrane integrity was decreased by application of silicon. Results of this study showed that different varieties have the variable resistance to stress. In this study, “Undulated leaf” genotype was more resistant compared to “Entire leaf”. So, it can be cultivated in gardens in areas where the water scarcity is prevalent.


طالع احمد س و حداد ر (1389) اثر سیلیکون بر فعالیت آنزیم‌های ضداکسنده و محتوای تنظیم‌کننده‏های اسمزی در دو ژنوتیپ گندم نان در شرایط تنش خشکی. مجلة به‌زراعی نهال و بذر. 2-26(2): 205-227.
طباطبایی ج فاطمی ل و فلاحی ا (1388) اثر سیلیسیوم بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه توت‌‌فرنگی در شرایط تنش شوری. مجلة علوم باغبانی. 23(1): 88-95.
قاسمی قهساره م و کافی م (1390) گل‌کاری علمی و عملی. جلد اول. اصفهان. ص310.
Abbasi GH, Akhtar J, Ahmad R, Jamil M, Anwar-ul-Haq M, Ali S and Ijaz M (2015) Potassium application mitigates salt stress differentially at different growth stages in tolerant and sensitive maize hybrids. Plant Growth Regulation, 76(1): 111-125.
Balakhnina T and Borkowska A (2013) Effects of silicon on plant resistance to environmental stresses: review. International Agrophysics. 27(2): 225-232.
Bates LS, Waldren RP and Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and soil. 39(1): 205-207.
Boldaji SH, Khavari-Nejad RA, Sajedi RH, Fahimi H and Saadatmand S (2012) Water availability effects on antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, and reducing sugar contents of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 34(3): 1177-1186.
Chalker-Scott L (2002) Do anthocyanins function as osmoregulators in leaf tissues? Advances in Botanical Research. 37: 103-127.
Epstein E (1994) The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 91: 11-17.
Fang Y and Xiong L (2015) General mechanisms of drought response and their application in drought resistance improvement in plants. Cellular and molecular life sciences. 72(4): 673-689.
Gong HZ, Chen K, Wang S and Zhang C (2005) Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Science. 169(2): 313-321.
Habibi G and Hajiboland R (2013) Alleviation of drought stress by silicon supplementation in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) plants. Folia Horticulturae. 25(1): 21-29.
Hatier JB and Gould KS (2008) Foliar anthocyanins as modulators of stress signals. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 253: 625–627.
Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Wahid A, Farooq M, Somasundaram R and Panneerselvam R (2009) Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 11: 100–105.
Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology. 148: 350-382.
Ma JF and Takahashi E (2002) Soil Fertilizer and plant silicon research in japan. Elsevier. The Netherlands, 281p.
Mafakheri A, Siosemardeh A, Bahramnejad B, Struik PC and Sohrabi Y (2011) Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5(10): 1255-1260.
McKersie BD and Lesheim Y (2013) Stress and stress coping in cultivated plants. Springer Science & Business Media.
Nankishore A and Farrell AD (2016) The response of contrasting tomato genotypes to combined heat and drought stress. Journal of Plant Physiology. 202: 75-82.
Nikpay A and Nejadian ES (2014) Field applications of silicon-based fertilizers against sugarcane yellow mite Oligonychus sacchari. Sugar Tech. 16(3): 319-324
Ouzounidou G, Giannakoula A, Ilias I and Zamanidis P (2016) Alleviation of drought and salinity stresses on growth, physiology, biochemistry and quality of two Cucumis sativus L. cultivars by Si application. Brazilian Journal of Botany. 39(2): 531-539.
Rabbani M and Kazemi F (2015) Investigating strategies for optimum water usage in green spaces covered with lawn. Desert. 20(2):
Reddy AR, Chaitanya KV and Vivekanandan M (2004) Drought-induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism in higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161(11): 1189-1202.
Ritchie SW, Nguyen HT and Holaday AS (1990). Leaf water content and gas-exchange parameters of two wheat genotypes differing in drought resistance. Crop Science. 30(1):
Soylemezoglu G, Demir K, Inal A and Gunes A (2009) Effect of silicon on antioxidant and stomatal response of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) rootstocks grown in boron toxic, saline and boron toxic-saline soil. Scientia Horticulturae. 123(2): 240-246.
Wagner GJ (1979) Content and vacuole/extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiology. 64(1): 88-93.
Wen X, Gu C, Zhu D, Liu P, Lai Y and Zeng Q (2017) Water stress effects on cell membrane lipid oxidation and calcification of chestnut (Castanea mollissima Bl.). Postharvest Biology and Technology. 126: 34-39.
Zhao Y, Aspinall D and Paleg LG (1992) Protection of membrane integrity in Medicago sativa L. by glycinebetaine against the effects of freezing. Journal of Plant Physiology. 140(5): 541-54.