Document Type : Research Paper


Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands/ Tehran


An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design in split-plot arrangement with three replications to find the most suitable location and the planting density of Thymus vulgaris at dry farming condition in seven provinces of Iran. The experimental treatments consisted of plant density (4, 6 and 8 plant/m2), year (1 and 2 years after planting) and location (Tehran, North Khorasan, Isfahan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Gilan and East Azerbaijan). The traits comprised of plant height, canopy diameter, dry matter of aerial parts, yield and content of essential oil in full flowering stage. The results revealed that interactions of density, location and year were significant on all studied traits. The highest dry matter (1734 kg/h) and essential oil yield (16.84 kg/h) of aerial parts were obtained in 8 plant/m2 density in Gilan. The maximum and minimum of essential oil content were observed in samples from Isfahan (1.96%) and East Azerbaijan (0.50%), respectively. Based on our findings, it seems that cultivation of T. vulgaris with higher density may cause a higher production of dry matter and essential oil yields under dry farming conditions in Iran.


امیدبیگی ر (1379) تولید و فرآوری گیاهان دارویی (جلد 3). انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی، مشهد. 397ص.
برومند رضازاده ز، رضوانی مقدم پ و راشد محصل م ح (1388) اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم گیاهی بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و درصد اسانس گیاه دارویی زنیان (Trachyspermum ammi (Linn). Sprague). علوم گیاهان زراعی ایران. 40(4):
جلیلیان ج، مدرس ثانوی س ع م و صباغ‌پور س ح (1384) اثر تراکم بوته و آبیاری تکمیلی بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و میزان پروتئین چهار رقم نخود در شرایط دیم. علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 12(5): 1-9.
جمزاد ز (1388) آویشن‌ها و مرزه‌های ایران. انتشارات مؤسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور. 171ص.
حیدری شریف‌آباد ح (1379) گیاه، خشکی و خشکسالی. انتشارات مؤسسة تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، تهران. 200 ص.
حیدری ف، زهتاب سلماسی س، جوانشیر ع، آلیاری ه و دادپور م ح (1387) تأثیر تراکم بوته بر عملکرد و تولید اسانس گیاه دارویی نعناع فلفلی (.Mentha piperita L). مجلة علوم آب و خاک- علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 12(45): 501-510.
زرگری ع (1363) گیاهان دارویی. جلد دوم. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
غفاری ع (1387) دیم‌کاری اصولی به جای دیمی‌کاری سنتی. مجلة پیام جهاد کشاورزی. 75: 29.
لباسچی م ح (1379) بررسی جنبه‌های اکوفیزیولوژی گل راعی در اکوسیستم‌های طبیعی و زراعی. رسالة دکتری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. 114 ص.
Al Maqtari MAA, Alghalibi SM and Alhamzy EH (2011) Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris from Yemen. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry. 36(4): 342–349.
Ayaz S, Mc Neil DL, Mc kenzie BA and Hill GD (1999) Effect of plant population and sowing depth on yield components of grain legumes. Proceedings of the Australian Agronomy Conference. 29: 9-15.
Babakhan Lou P, Bahreyni Nezhad B, Baqer Zadeh K, Asgar Zadeh M and Shanbeh Dast Jerdi F (2006) Study on effects of plant density and harvesting time on vegetative yield and essential oil amount of Thymus daenensis. Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation Centre, Agricultural Research and Education Organization (Iran (Islamic Republic of)) ASIDC.
Bhati DS (1988) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) response to sowing date and spacing. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 58: 437-439.
British pharmacopoeia (2007) Appendix XI E. (ph. Eur. method 2.8.12).
Cattivelli L, Rizza F, Badeck FW, Mazzucotelli E, Mastrangelo AM, Francia E, Marè C, Tondelli A and Stanca AM (2008) Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: An integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Research. 105:1-14.
Dambrauskienė E (2010) Influence of various factors on the amount of essential oils in fresh raw matter of medicinal thyme. Sodininkystė Ir Daržininkystė. Scientific Articles. 29(2): 55-60.
Delffine S, Loreto F, Pinelli P, Toognetti R and Alvino A (2005) Isoprenoids content and photosynthetic limitations in rosemary and spearmint plants under water stress. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 106: 243–252.
FAO (2005) Trade in medicinal plants. FAO Pub, Rome.
Gardner FP, Pearce RB and Mitchell RL (1985) Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 327 p.
Guerrero-Lagunes LA, Ruiz-Posadas LM, Rodríguez-Mendoza MN, Soto-Hernández M and Castillo-Morales A (2011) Efecto del cultivo hidropónico de tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L.) en la calidad y rendimiento del aceite esencial. Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura. 17(2): 141-149.
Gul MA and Acara C (2001) Effect on erosion control and cultivation of sweet marjoram (Origanum onites), Sage (Salvia officinalis), Balm (Melissa officinalis) on the marginal agriculture lands. In proceeding of seminar on harvesting of non-wood forest products. Ankara, Turkey. 237-240.
Khazaie HR, Nadjafi F and Bannayan M (2008) Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Industrial Crops and Products. 27: 315–321.
Naghdi Badi H, Yazdani D, Mohammadi S and Nazari F (2004) Effect of spacing and harvest time on herbage yield and quality/ quantity of oil in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Industrial Crop and Products. 19: 231-236.
Ozer H (2003) The effect of plant population densities on growth, yield and yield components of two spring rapeseed cultivars. Plant, Soil and Environment. 49: 422-426.
Porte A and Godoy RO (2008) Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. 73(3): 307–310.
Raey Y, Demaghi N and Seied Sharifi R (2007) Effect of different levels of irrigation and plant density on grain yield and its components in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Deci type cv. Kaka. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 9: 371-381.
Shahzad MA, Din WU, Sahi ST, Khan MM and Ehsanullah Ahmad M (2007) Effect of sowing dates and seed treatment on grain yield and quality of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 44(4): 581-583.
Shalaby AS and Razin AM (1992) Dense cultivation and fertilization for higher yield of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 168(4): 243-248.
Singh KB (1987) Chickpea breedin.: In: M.C. Saxena and K.B. Singh (eds.), The Chickpea. CAB International, UK.
Solowey E (2010) Chapter 7. Arboreal pastures. In: Solowey, E. Growing Bread on Trees: The Case for Perennial Agriculture. Biblio Books Israel, Acco, Israel/ Biblio Books International, Miami, Florida. pp. 106-123.
UNCTAD/WTO )Anonymous( (2006) World markets in the spice trade. International Trade Center, UNCTAD/WTO. (htt://