Document Type : Research Paper



In this study, collecting of management information from about 700 wheat farms in Golestan province was conducted during two growing seasons of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. In each of region, potential yields, the optimum crop management and simultaneously the percentage of wheat farms out of the optimal ranges were identified in both irrigated and rainfed conditions using boundary line analysis. To do this, the information was analyzed in three parts of irrigated, high- and low-yield rainfed conditions. By plotting farm’s yield data scatter, against management factors, highest yields in different levels of input or management factors were selected and a boundary function was fitted to the upper boundary of data points. According to the results, potential yield for irrigated, high- and low-yield rainfed wheat were estimated equal to 6816, 5791 and 3932 kg ha-1 with a yield gap of 42, 31 and 50 percent, respectively. The optimum ranges of sowing date, seeding rate, plant density, frequency and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied, the amount of nitrogen applied after sowing, the amount of phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium fertilizers (K2O) applied and irrigation frequency were determined according to the results. Consider the optimum managements, farmers in each region can shrink the yield gap and reach potential yield result in increasing the amount of wheat production in Golestan province.


اتاق بازرگانی تهران (1395) دسترسی از طریق:
آمارنامة کشاورزی (1394) جلد اول: محصولات زارعی، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامهریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات.
بی‌نام (1394) بررسی آمار سطح برداشت و میزان تولید 36 سال محصولات زراعی، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامهریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات.
بی‌نام (1394) معاونت بهبود تولیدات گیاهی،سازمان جهاد کشاورزی استان گلستان، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی.
ترابی ب، سلطانی ا، گالشی س و زینلی ا (1390) تحلیل عوامل محدودکنندة عملکرد گندم در شرایط گرگان. الکترونیک تولید گیاهان زراعی. 4(4): 17-1.
حجارپور ا، سلطانی ا و ترابی ب (1394) استفاده از آنالیز خط مرزی در مطالعات خلأ عملکرد: مطالعة موردی گندم در گرگان. الکترونیک تولید گیاهان زراعی. 8(4): 201-183.
سلطانی ا و ترابی ب (1393) طرح و تجزیة آزمایش‌های کشاورزی. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد. 430 ص.
Anderson W, Johansen C and Siddique KHM (2016) Addressing the yield gap in rainfed crops: a review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 36: 1-13.
Bruulsema T (2009) Recommendation development under 4R nutrient stewardship. Proceedings North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference.
Casanova D, Goudriaan J, Bouma J and Epema G (1999) Yield gap analysis in relation to soil properties in direct-seeded flooded rice. Geoderma. 91: 191-216.
Connor DJ, Loomis RS and Cassman KG (2011) Crop ecology: productivity and management in agricultural systems. Cambridge University Press. 569 p.
Deihimfard R, Mahallati MN and Koocheki A (2015) Yield gap analysis in major wheat growing areas of Khorasan province, Iran, through crop modelling. Field Crops Research. 184: 28-38.
Fageria NK, Baligar VC and Jones CA (2010) Growth and mineral nutrition of field crops CRC Press. 550 p.
FAO (2016) Faostat-Trade/Crops and livestock products, Available at (accessed 15 April 2016).
Grassini P, Hall AJ and Mercau JL (2009) Benchmarking sunflower water productivity in semiarid environments. Field Crops Research. 110: 251-262.
Huang X, Wang L, Yang L and Kravchenko AN (2008) Management effects on relationships of crop yields with topography represented by wetness index and precipitation. Agronomy Journal. 100: 1463.
Kitchen NR, Drummond ST, Lund ED, Sudduth KA and Buchleiter GW (2003) Soil Electrical Conductivity and Topography Related to Yield for Three Contrasting Soil–Crop Systems. Agronomy Journal. 95: 483-495.
Lobell DB, Cassman KG and Field CB (2009) Crop yield gaps: their importance, magnitudes, and causes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 34: 179-204.
Mueller ND, Gerber JS, Johnston M, Ray DK, Ramankutty N and Foley JA (2012) Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management. Nature. 490: 254-257.
Patrignani A, Lollato RP, Ochsner TE, Godsey CB and Edwards JT (2014) Yield gap and production gap of rainfed winter wheat in the southern great plains. Agronomy Journal. 106: 1329.
Shatar TM and Mcbratney AB (2004) Boundary-line analysis of field-scale yield response to soil properties. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 142: 553-560.
Soltani A, Hajjarpour A and Vadez V (2016) Analysis of chickpea yield gap and water-limited potential yield in Iran. Field Crops Research. 185: 21-30.
Tasistro A (2012) Use of boundary lines in field diagnosis and research for Mexican farmers. Better Crops with Plant Food. 96: 11-13.
Tittonell P and Giller KE (2013) When yield gaps are poverty traps: The paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture. Field Crops Research. 143: 76-90.
Tittonell P, Shepherd K, Vanlauwe B and Giller K (2008) Unravelling the effects of soil and crop management on maize productivity in smallholder agricultural systems of western Kenya—An application of classification and regression tree analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 123: 137-150.
van Ittersum MK, Cassman KG, Grassini P, Wolf J, Tittonell P and Hochman Z (2013) Yield gap analysis with local to global relevance—A review. Field Crops Research. 143: 4-17.
van Wart J, van Bussel LGJ, Wolf J, Licker R, Grassini P, Nelson A, Boogaard H, Gerber J, Mueller ND, Claessens L, van Ittersum MK and Cassman KG (2013) Use of agro-climatic zones to upscale simulated crop yield potential. Field Crops Research. 143: 44-55.
Wang N, Jassogne L, van Asten PJA, Mukasa D, Wanyama I, Kagezi G and Giller KE (2015) Evaluating coffee yield gaps and important biotic, abiotic, and management factors limiting coffee production in Uganda. European Journal of Agronomy. 63: 1-11.