Document Type : Research Paper


Zanjan agricultural and natural resource research center


Considering modifications in the usual alfalfa planting pattern is critical for expansion of alfalfa seed and forage dual-purpose cultivation idea between seed growers so that, an experimental design based on randomized block design run in two years 2013 and 2014 in Zanjan province. Four planting patterns including hand-spreading, 25, 50 and 75 cm row spacing put on the main plots and three seeding rates including 10, 20 and 30 kg/ha put on the subplots. Results of combined analysis revealed that highest dry forage yield produced from 25 and 50 cm row spacing which had not meaningful difference with each other. The same results happened for seed rates of 20 and 30 kg/ha which had the highest dry yield. Germination as a seed quality index was not affected by planting pattern and seeding rate. But seed weight produced from 10 kg/ha seeding rate was heavier than other treatments. Economic value of dry forage was higher in 25 and 50 cm row spacing and 20 to 30 kg/ha seeding rate which were the same as each other. Based on these results, the highest economic value of alfalfa dual-purpose forage and seed production acquired from planting pattern 50 cm row spacing and 10kg/ha seeding rate and may use for alfalfa seed stand establishment as a recommendation.


خرمیان م و شوشی دزفولی ا ع (1387) تاثیر رژیم آبیاری و فاصله ردیف بر عملکرد یونجه بغدادی در شمال خوزستان. به زراعی نهال و بذر. 24: 308-295.
زربخش ع ج (1373) بررسی اثرات فواصل خطوط و میزان های مختلف بذر با میزان عملکرد و کیفیت علوفه یونجه، اولین همایش تحقیقات راهبردی گیاهان علوفه ای. 11-2. 
ظریفی نیا ن (1381) بررسی اثرات تراکم و الگوی کاشت بر عملکرد بذر یونجه بغدادی، اولین همایش تحقیقات راهبردی گیاهان علوفه ای. 32-21.  
عبادوز غ، راهنما ع و فتحی ق (1388) بررسی اثرات فاصله بین ردیف و میزان بذر مصرفی بر اجزاء عملکرد و عملکرد بذر یونجه (رقم مساسرسا) مجله پژوهش های تولید گیاهی.16(3): 84-67.  
مظاهری لقب ح، عبداللهی م ر، موسوی س و یزدی ر(1390) اثر فاصله ردیف کاشت و مرحله برداشت علوفه چین اول در تولید بذر یونجه (Medicago sativa L.). مجله به زراعی نهال و بذر. 2-27(1): 110-91. 
Askarian M.,Hampton J.G., and Hill M.J. (1995) Effect of row spacing and sowing rate on seed production of Lucerne cv. Grasslands Oranga. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 38:289-295.
Bouton J (2007). The economic benefits of forage improvement in the United States. Euphytica. 154(3), 263-270.
Cazzato E. and Carleto .1990. The effect of seeding rate and row spacing on seed yield and yield components of squarrosum clover and crimson clover in southern Italy. Options Mediterraneennes. 2(1): 389-393.
Celebi S.Z., Kaya A, Korhan Sahar A and Yergin R (2010) Effects of the weed density on grass yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in different row spacing applications. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9(41): 6867-6872.
Fu S.M., Hampton J.G. and Hill M.J. (1999) Effect of plant density on seed yield in Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum Bieb. cv.). Journal of Applied seed production. 17: 61-64.
Hall M.H., Nelson C. J., Coutts J.H. and Stout R.C. (2004) Effect of seeding rate on alfalfa stand longevity. Agronomy Journal. 96:717–722.
Hallam A., Anderson I.C. and Buxton D.R. (2001) Comparative economic analysis of perennial, annual, and intercrops for biomass production. Biomass and Bioenergy. 21(6), 407-424.
ISTA (2012) Rules Proposals for the International Rules for Seed Testing.
Lioveras J., Chocarro C., Freixes O., Arque E., Moreno A. and Santiveri F. (2008) Yield, yield component and forage nutritive value of alfalfa as affected by seeding rate under irrigated conditions. Agronomy Journal. 100(2):191-197
Mayer Dwin W. (2007) Seeding rate effects in alfalfa. North Dakota state university website.
Prepavo,N.I., and Khudokoromov, W. (1994) Sowing rate for red clover grown for seed. Zemledic, 5:39-40.
Rashidi, M. Zand B., Abbassi S. (2010) Seeding rate effect on seed yield and yield components of alfalfa. ARPN J. of agricultural and biological science. 5(3): 42-45
Simko J. (1992) Effect of sowing rate, dencity, stand age and year on the seed yield of Lucerne. Herbage Abstracts, 62:36-97.
Van Valen, L. (2005). The statistics of variation. In: Hallgrimsson B. and Hall B.K. (Eds.), Variation: A central concept in biology (pp. 29–48). New York: Elsevier Academic Press.
Zhang T., Wang X., Han J., Wang Y., Mao P. and Majerus M. (2008) Effects of between row and within row spacing on alfalfa seed yields. Crop science. 48:794-803.