Document Type : Research Paper



To reduce the damages of water deficit stress on safflower with zeolite and chitosan, an experiment was conducted as split plot factorial in randomized complete block design with three replication at the field Research Station of agricultural Faculty of Tarbiat Modares University during the 2012 growing. Treatments were water deficit stress {(control (Irrigation after 50 percent), moderate stress (Irrigation after 65 percent) and intensive stress (Irrigation after 80 percent) discharge of available moisture}, zeolite (control and 4.5 ton hec-1) and chitosan (non sprayed, distilled water, 1 percent acetic acid, 0.05 percent chitosan and 0.5 percent chitosan). Result showed that intense stress decreased yield, half the maximum value compared to control but whit zeolite and 0.05 percent chitosan this amount was reduced to 19 percent. Oil yield increased under non-zeolite application and intensive water deficit with foliar application of 0.05 percent chitosan, about 63 percent. Application of zeolite and 0.5 percent chitosan showed the highest number of capitol that was 26 percent higher than zeolite application and non sprayed. We conclude that zeolite and chitosan application can reduce damages of water deficit stress and increase growth and yield of this plant.


خواجه ­پور م ر (1383) گیاهان صنعتی چاپ اول، انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، 564 صفحه.
سیبی م، میرزاخانی م و گماریان م (1390) اثر تنش کم­آبی، مصرف زئولیت و سالیسیلیک اسید بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گلرنگ بهاره. یافته­های نوین کشاورزی. 5 (3): 275-290.
موسوی­فر ب، بهدانی م و احمدی م (1387) پاسخ ارقام گلرنگ بهاره به فواصل مختلف آبیاری در بیرجند، مجموعه مقالات همایش منطقه­ای در بحران آب و خشکسالی.670 - 675.
میرزاخانی م و سیبی م (1389) پاسخ صفات فیزیولوژیکی گلرنگ به تنش آبی و مصرف زئولیت، دومین همایش ملی کشاورزی و توسعه­ی پایدار، فرصت­ها و چالش­ها یپیش­رو. 21.
یوسفوند پ، ساجدی ن و میرزاخانی م (1390) تاثیر تنش خشکی، مصرف زئولیت و سلنیوم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان. یافته­های نوین کشاورزی. 5 (3): 325-339.
Abu-Muriefah S (2013) Effect of chitosan on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown under water stress conditions. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science. 3: 192-199.
Al-Busaidi A, Yamamoto T, Inoue M, Eneji AE, Mori Y and Irshad M (2008) Effects of zeolite on soil nutrients and growth of barley following irrigation with saline water. Journal of Plant Nutrients, 31: 1159-1173.
Ayan S, Yahyaoglu Z, Gercek V and Şahin A (2005) Utilization of zeolite as a substrate for containerized oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) seedlings Concentration (mg / kg) 3 dS m-116 dS m-110 propagation.International Symposium on Growing Media.4-10.
Babel S and Kurniawan TA (2003) Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. Hazardous Materials. 97: 219–243.
Boonlertnirun S, Sarobol ED, Meechoui S and Sooksathan I (2007) Drought recovery and grain yield potential of rice after chitosan application. Kasetsart. 41: 1-6.
Gholam Hosseini M, Aqaalikhani M and Malakooti MJ (2008) Effect of different rates of nitrogen and zeolite on forage quantitative and qualitative yield of autumn canola. Agriculture and Natural Resources Sciences and Techniques. 45: (B) 537-548.
Guan YJ, Hu J, Wang XJ and Shao CX (2009) Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. Zhejiang University Science. 10:427-433.
Kumar A, Singh D, Pand Singh P (1994) Influence of water stress on photosynthesis, transpiration, water use efficiency and yield of Brassica juncea L. Field Crops Research. 37:95 101.
Lee YS, Kim YH and Kim SB (2005) Changes in the respiration, growth, and vitamin C content of soybean sprouts in response to chitosan of different molecular weights. Horticulture Science. 40: 1333-1335.
Miller GL (2000) Physiological response of Bermuda grass grown in soil amendments during drought stress. Horticulture Science. 35:213-216.
No HK, Meyers SP and Lee KS (1989) Isolation and characterization of chitin from crawfish shell waste. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 37: 575-579.
Polat E, Karaca M, Demir H and Naci Onus A (2004) Use of Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) in Agriculture. Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research.12:183-189.
Sarathchandra, RG and Jaj, SN(2004) A chitosan formulation Alexa induce Downy Mildew disease resistance and growth promotion in pearl millet, Crop Protection. 23: 881–888.
Tanaka DL, Riveland NR, Bergman JW and Schneiter AA(1997) Safflower plant development stages.IVth International Safflower Conference. 179-180.
Wanichpongpan P, Suriyachan K and Chandrkrachang S(2001) Effect of Chitosan on the growth of Gerbera flower plant (Gerbera jamesonii L.). Proceeding Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science. 198-201.
Weiss EA (2000) Oilseed Crops. 2th Ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford. 288 p.
Xiubin H and Zhanbin H (2001) Zeolite application for enhancing water infiltration and retention in loess soil. Resources Conservation and Recycling. 34: 45-52.
Zeng D, Luo X and Tu R (2012) Application of bioactive coatings based on chitosan for soybean seed protection. Carbohydrate Chemistry.12: 1-5.
Zhang M, Duan L, Zhai Z, Li J, Tian X, Wang B, He Z and Li Z (2004) Effects of plant growth regulators on water deficit-induced yield loss in soybean. 4th International Crop Science Congress. Brisbane. 26.