Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Kerman, Iran

3 . M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Payam-e- Noor University, Karaj, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Tehran, Iran


To study the effects of chitosan at 0.5 (C1), 0.1 (C2), 0.05 (C3) and 0.01 (C4) (weight percent) concentrations, distilled water (C5) and one percent acetic acid (C6) as controls on physiological and morphological characteristics of two landrace and modified (SZK-1) dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) varieties, a factorial experiment was conducted in completely randomized design in germinator of the Agronomy Department, Tarbiat Modares University. Results showed that, the interactions of treatments had significant effects on radicle length, plumule dry weigh, protein content and SOD activity. C2V2 and C6V1 produced the highest and the lowest of radicle length with 1.52 mm difference respectively. Also C2 increased the protein content of landrace variety in compare to C5. High concentrations of chitosan (C1 and C2) increased the SOD activity of modified variety compare to C5. Therefore chitosan can increase some germination characteristics of dragonhead varieties and improved bred varieties showed a better response to this organic compound.



1 . اسماعیلی ا، عیسوند ح ر، رضایی­نژاد ع، سمیعی ک و ضابطی س م (1391) مطالعه شاخص­ها و خصوصیات جوانه­زنی بذر و استقرار دانه­رست گیاه دارویی مورد (Myrtus communis L.). دانشگاه علوم پزشکی لرستان. 14(2): 71-80.
2 . امیدبیگی ر (1384) رهیافت­های تولید و فراوری گیاهان دارویی. چاپ دوم، انتشارات طراحان نشر. جلد اول، 283 ص.
3 . جباری ف، احمدی ا، پوستینی ک. و علیزاده ه (1389) بررسی ارتباط فعالیت برخی آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدانت با پایداری غشای سلولی و کلروفیل در ارقام گندم نان مقاوم و حساس به تنش خشکی. علوم کشاورزی ایران. 37: 307-316.
4 . دولت­آبادیان آ، مدرس ثانوی س ع م و اعتمادی ف (1387) اثر پیش­تیمار اسید سالیسیلیک بر جوانه­زنی بذر گندم (Triticun aestivum L.) در شرایط شوری. زیست­شناسی ایران. 21(4): 692-702.
5 . صالحیان خ (1374) اثر قدرت بذر بر سبز کردن، نمو و عملکرد دانه گندم. پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز. 116 ص.
6 . فرزانه ا، عبادی م ت، نعمتی س و آرویی ح (1390) بررسی ویژگی­های جوانه­زنی دو رقم اصلاح شده گیاه دارویی گل گندم (Centaurea cyanus L.) و توده ’بومی‘ ایران در شرایط تنش شوری. تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و معطر ایران. 27(1): 161-172.
7 . مهدوی ب، مدرس ثانوی س ع م، آقا­علیخانی م و شریفی م (1392) اثر غلظت­های مختلف کیتوزان بر جوانه­زنی بذر و آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدانت گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در شرایط تنش کم­آبی. پژوهش­های گیاهی (زیست­شناسی ایران). 26(3): 352-365.
8 . ونایی س، سی­و­سه مرده ع و حیدری غ (1390) اثرات تنش سرما در مرحله جوانه­زنی و گیاهچه­ای بر فعالیت آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدان و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی در نخود (Cicer arientinum L.). پژوهش­های زراعی ایران. 9(3): 514-524.
9 . Akimoto C, Aoyagi H and Tanaka H (1999) Endogenous elicitor-like effects of alginate on physiological activities of plant cells. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 52: 429- 436.
10 . Albuquerque MC, DeF E and Carvalho NM (2003) Effects of the type of environmental stress on the emergence of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) Merril and maize (Zea mays L.) seeds with different levels of vigor. Seed Science and Technology 31: 465-479.
11 . Bradford MM (1976) A rapid, sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.
12 . Chandrkrachang S (2002) The application of chitin and chitosan in agriculture in Thailand. In: Suchiva VK Chandrkrachang S, Methacanon P, Peter MG (eds.), Advances in Chitin Science, Bangkok. Pp. 458-462.
13 . Cote F and Hahn MG (1994) Oligosaccharins: structures and signal transduction. Plant Molecular Biology. 26: 1379-1411.
14 .  Devlieghere F, Vermeulen A and Debevere J (2004) Chitosan: antimicrobial activity, interactions with food components and applicability as a coating on fruit and vegetables. Food Microbiology. Pp. 703-714.
15 . Ghoulam C and Fares K (2001) Effect of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Seed Science and Technology. 29: 357-364.
16 . Giannopolitis C and Ries S (1997) Superoxide dismutase. I. Occurrence in higher plant. Plant Physiology. 59: 309-314.
17 . Guan YJ, Hu J, Wang XJ and Shao CX (2009) Seed priming with Chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B. 10: 427-433.
18 . Kananot N, Pichyangkura R, Chanprame S, Chadchawan S and Limpanavech P (2010) Chitosan specificity for the in vitro seed germination of two Dendrobium orchids (Asparagales: orchidaceae). Scientia Horticulture. 124: 230-247.
19 . Katchadat K (2005) Effects of Chitosan on Fusarium solani causative a soybean related. Sudden death syndrome pathogen (M.Sc. Thesis). Technology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University.
20 . Mahdavi B and Rahimi A (2013) Seed priming with chitosan improves the germination and growth performance of ajowan (Carum copticum L.) under salt stress. EurAsian Journal of Biosciences. 7: 69-76.
21 . Mary E and Davis MJ (1998) Defense Response in slash pine: Chitosan treatment alters the abundance of specific mRNAs. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 10(1): 135-137.
22 . No HK, Meyers SP and Lee KS (1989) Isolation and characterization of chitin from crawfish shell waste. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 37(3): 575-579.
23 . Pandolfini T, Rotino GL, Camerini S, Defez R and Spena A (2002) Optimization of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: High Quality Parthenocarpic Fruits in Industrial Tomatoes. BMC Biotechnology. 2: 1.
24 . Park PJ, Je JY and Kim SK (2004) Free radical scavenging activities of differently deacetylated Chitosan using an ESR spectrometer. Carbohydrate Polymers. 55: 17-22.
25 . Perry DA (1991) Methodology and application of vigor tests. International seed testing. Association, Zurich, Switzerland. 275 p.
26 . Pospieszny H, Chirkov S and Atabekov J (1991) Induction of antiviral resistance in plants by Chitosan. Plant Science. 79: 63-68.
27 . Rodriguez ABF, Costales D, Cabrera JC and Tellez MAM (2011) Chitosan physic-chemical properties modulate defense responses and resistance in tobacco plants against the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 100: 221-228.
28 . Ruan SL and Xue QZ (2002) Effects of chitosan coating on seed germination and salt-tolerance of seedlings in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Acta Agronomica Sinica. 28(6): 803-808. (In Chinese).
29 . Sui XY, Zhang WQ, Xia W and Wang Q (2002) Effect of chitosan as seed coating on seed germination and seedling growth and several physiological and biochemical indexes in rapeseed. Plant Physiology Communications. 38: 225-227.
30 . Sukwattanasinitt M, Klaikherd A, Skulnee K and Aiba S (2001) Chitosan as a releasing device for 2,4-D herbicide, in: Uragami, T., Kurita, K., Fukamizo T. (Eds.), Chitin and Chitosan, Chitin and Chitosan in Life Science, Yamaguchi, pp. 142–143, ISBN 4-906464-43-0.
31 . Tawaha ARM and Ghazawi AL (2013) Effect of chitosan on germination and salt tolerance of lentil (Lens culinaris L.), Research on Crops. 14: 489-491.
32 . Uozumi N and Kobayashi T (1994) Application of hairy root and bioreactors. Pp. 307-338. In: D. D. Y. Ryu and S. Furusaki (eds.). Advances in Plant Biotechnology. Elsevier, NY, USA.
33 . Venskutionis PR, Dapkevicius A and Baranuauskiene M (1995) Flavor composition of some lemon-like aroma herbs from Lithuania. Development in Food Science. 37: 833-847.
34 . Walker Smmon M and Ryan CA (1984) Proteinase Inhibitor Synthesis in Tomato Leaves. Plant Physiology. 76: 787-790.
35 . Zeng D and Luo X (2012) Physiological Effects of Chitosan Coating on Wheat Growth and Activities of Protective Enzyme with Drought Tolerance. Soil Science. 2: 282-288.
36 . Zeng D, Luo X and Tu R (2012) Application of bioactive coatings based on chitosan for soybean seed protection.