Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D., Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of the red flesh apples and Golab cultivars. Two Iranian red flesh apples from Shahroud and four Golab cultivars as well as ‘Gala’ as control from Damavand were selected in Summer 2012. Fruit physical characteristics including length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight, firmness, color and their parameters were evaluated for each cultivar. The measured chemical properties were including total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity (TA), TSS: TA, total phenol content (TPC) and 50 percent inhibitory activity of DPPH radical. Results showed that ‘Bekran’ and ‘Bastam’ red flesh genotypes had the highest dry weights (15.44 and 15.07 g, respectively). The highest and lowest firmness were in ‘Bekran’ red flesh and ‘Golab-e Kermanshah’ (5.65 and 2.82 N/mm2, respectively). The highest TPC was determined in two red flesh apples ‘Bekran’ and ‘Bastam’ (4481.01 and 4011.73 mg GAE/100 g FW, respectively). The lowest TPC was detected in ‘Atlasi’ (2596.05 mg GAE/100 g FW). The highest IC50 was observed in ‘Bekran’, ‘Golab-e Kermanshah’ and ‘Gala’. Despite the fact that Iran is a major producer of apple in the world, but it does not benefit of export. Growing cultivars with improved physicochemical properties can help our country to boost its apple export status.


1 . حسینی فرهی م، ابوطالبی ع و پناهی کردلاغری خ (1387) بررسی تغییرات سفتی بافت میوة سیب ’رد دلیشز‘ و ’گلدن دلیشز‘ پس از برداشت با توجه به نوع پایه، رقم و تیمار کلرید کلسیم. پژوهش و سازندگی در زراعت و باغبانی. 78: 80-74.
2 . دامیار س، حسنید و پروانه ط (1392) ارزیابی برخی خصوصیات ژنوتیپ‌های سیب گوشت‌قرمز بومی ایران. به­نژادی نهال و بذر. 29(3): 501-483.
3 . رفیعی م، ناصری ل، بخشی د و علیزاده ا (1391) ترکیب‌های فنلی و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی در برخی ارقام سیب ایرانی و تجاری در استان آذربایجان غربی. به­زراعی کشاورزی. 14(2): 55-43.
4 . علیزاده ا (1387) شناسایی و جمع­آوری و ارزیابی مورفولوژیکی ژرم­پلاسم سیب بومی ایران. گزارش طرح پژوهشی.
5 . فرامرزی ش (1389) مطالعۀ صفات مورفولوژیکی و تنوع ژنتیکی سیب‌های گوشت‌قرمز ایرانی با استفاده از نشانگرهای ریزماهواره (SSR). پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد باغبانی. دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
6 . فرامرزی ش، یداللهی ع، حاج­نجاری ح، شجاعیان ع و دامیار س (1393) بررسی صفات مورفولوژیک سیب‌های گوشت‌قرمز ایرانی در مقایسه با تعدادی از ارقام بومی و تجاری. به­زراعی کشاورزی. 16(1): 10-1.
7 . محمودی ا (1389) جداسازی و بررسی ژن تنظیم­کننده رنگ قرمز (MYB) در میوۀ سیب گوشت‌قرمز. پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد بیوتکنولوژی. دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
8 . نقشین ف (1386) ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی ژنوتیپ‌های سیب گلاب ایران با استفاده از نشانگرهای SSR و ISSR. پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد بیوتکنولوژی. دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان.
9 . Aaby K, Hvattum E and Skrede G (2004) Analysis of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric array detection: relationship to antioxidant activity. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52(15): 4595-4603.
10 . Anonymous (1990) Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 15th edn. 
11 . Balík J, Rop O, Mlček J, Híc P, Horák M and Řezníček V (2012) Assessment of nutritional parameters of native apple cultivars as new gene sources. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 60: 27-38.
12 . Bakhshi D and Arakawa O (2006) Induction of phenolic compounds biosynthesis with light irradiation in the Tesh of red and yellow apples. Applied Horticulture. 8(2): 101-104.
13 . Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME and Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie. 28: 25-30.
14 . D’abrosca B, Pacifico S, Cefarelli G, Mastellone C and Fiorentino A (2007) ‘Limoncella’ apple, an Italian apple cultivar:  Phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxi dant activity. Food Chemistry. 104: 1333-1337.
15 . Eberhardt MV, Lee CY and Liu RH (2000) Nutrition: Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature. 405(6789): 903-904.
16 . Fallahi A, Hasani Moghadam A and Rousta S (1391) Physical properties and nutritional values of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Red Delicious’ (Malus domestica Borkh) in Lorestan province. Yafteh. 2: 15-22 (In Persian).
17 . Faramarzi S, Yadollahi A and Soltani BM (2014) Preliminary evaluation of genetic diversity among Iranian red fleshed apples using microsatellite marker. Agricultural Science and Technology. 16: 373-384.
18 . Ghorbani E, Bakhshi D, Ghasemnezhad M, Arakawa O, Hajnajari H and Papachatzis A (2013) Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of some native and imported apple cultivars in Iran. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 981: 705-711.
19 . Harker FR, Kupferman EM, Marin AB, Gunson FA and Triggs CM (2008) Eating quality standards for apples base d o n consumer preferences. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 50: 70-78.
20 . Harris SA, Robinson JP and Juniper BE (2002) Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. TRENDS in Genetics. 18(8): 426-430.
21 . Hudina M and Stampar F (2000) Sugars and organic acids contents of European (Pyrus communis L.) and Asian (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) pear cultivars. Acta Aliment. 29: 217-230.
22 . Iacopini P, Camangi F, Stefani A and Sebastiani L (2010) Antiradical potential of ancient Italian apple varieties of  Malus domestica Borkh. in a peroxynitrite-induced oxidative process. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.23(6): 518-524.
23 . Jan I and Rab A (2012) Influence of storage duration on physico-chemical changes in fruit of apple cultivars. Animal and Plant Sciences. 22(3): 708-714.
24 . Janick J, Cummins J, Brown S and Hemmat M (1996) Apples. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
25. Jemrić T, Fruk G, Čiček D, Skendrović Babojelić M and Šindrak Z (2012) Preliminary results of fruit quality of eight Croatian local apple cultivars. Agriculture Conspectus Scientificus. 77: 223-226.
26 . Kondo S, Tsuda K, Muto N and Ueda J (2002) Antioxidative activity of apple skin or flesh extracts associated with fruit development on selected apple cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 96(1): 177-185.
27 . Lata B, Przeradzka M and Bìnkowska M (2005) Great differences in antioxidant properties exist between 56 apple cultivars and vegetation seasons. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53: 8970-8978.
28 . Lister CE, Lancaster JE and Sutton KH (1994) Developmental  changes in  the concentration  and  composition  o f flavonoids in  skin  of a red  and  a green apple cultivar. Science of Food and Agriculture. 64: 155-161.
29 . Minnocci A, Iacopini P, Martinelli F and Sebastiani L (2010) Micromorphological, biochemical and genetic characterization of two ancient, late-bearing apple varieties. European Journal of Horticultural Science. 75: 1-7.
30 . Mitra SK (2003) Apple temperate fruits. Horticulture and Allied Pub. Calcuta. 700(020): 1-122.
31 . Mitre I, Mitre V, Ardelean M, Sestras R and Sestras A (2009) Evaluation of old apple cultivars grown in central Transylvania, Romania, Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici. 37: 235-237.
32 . Pirlak L, Güleryüz M, Aslantaş R and Eşitken A (2003) Promising native summer apple (Malus domestica) cultivars from north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 31: 311-314.
33 . Pocharski WJ, Konopacka D and Zwierz J (2000) Comparison of Magness-Taylor pressure test with mechanical, nondestructive methods of apple and pear firmness measurements. International Agrophysics. 14: 311-31.
34 . Saei A, Tustin DS, Zamani Z, Talaie A and Hall AJ (2011) Cropping effects on the loss of apple fruit firmness during storage: The relationship between texture retention and fruit dry matter concentration. Scientia Horticulturae. 130: 256-265.
35 . Tarrahi S, Hajnajari H and Badii F (2010) Comparison of pectin biosynthesis in local cultivar Azayesh and some commercial cultivars as affected by pH and carbohydrates apple content. Acta Horticulturae. 877: 1137-1144.
36 . Van Der Sluis AA, Dekker M, De Jager A and Jongen W (2001) Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49(8): 3606-3613.
37 . Veberic R, Trobec M, Herbinger K, Hofer M, Grill D and Stampar F (2005) Phenolic compounds in some apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars of organic and integrated production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 85(10): 1687-1694.
38 . Watkins R and Smith R (1982) Descriptor list for apples (Malus).
39 . Westwood MN (1987) Temperate-zone pomology. Sanfrancisco. Freeman.