Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticulture, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran


Biosynthesis of plant pigments is affected by environmental factors especially light intensity. An expriment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different light intensities on photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic pigments of two rose cultivars including ‘Red One’ and ‘Gulmira’ under greenhouse conditions. In this experiment, the effects of different light intensities including 240, 520 and 640 mol/m2/s and control with 1200 mol/m2/s (without application of plastic nets) on the rose cultivars was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Plastic nets were used to obtain different levels of light intensities. The results showed that photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll and carotenoids, significantly increased in the light intensity of 240 mol/m2/s vs. control. In this light intensity, antocyanin content was significantly reduced. Reducing light intensity to 240 mol/m2/s could result in higher chlorophyll as well as carotenoid content without significant changes in flavonoids. Increasing anthocyanin content with increasing light intensity to 1200 mol/m2/s could be a defense mechanism in plants against toxic levels of light intensities.


  1. حاجی‌بلند ر و فرهنگی ف (1389) رشد، رنگیزه‌های برگ و فتوسنتز گیاه شلغم تحت کمبود بور  (Brassica rapa)و شدت‌های مختلف نور. علوم دانشگاه تهران. 36: 1-8.

2 . Anderson M and Jordheim M (2005) The anthocyanins. In: Anderson., Markham K.R. (eds.) Flavonoids: Chemistry. Biochemistry and Applications. CRC Press.

3 . Biran I, Robinson M and Halevy N (1974) Factors determining petal colour of Baccara roses. Exprimental Botany. 25: 614-623.

4 . Brand MH (1997) Shade influences plant growth, leaf color and chlorophyll content of Kalmia latifolia L. cultivars. Horticulture Science. 32: 206-208.

5 . Bredmose N (1993) Effect of year-round supplementary lighting on shoot development, flowering and quality of two glasshouse rose cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae.54: 69-85.

6 . Dole JM and Wilkins  HF (1999) Floriculture principle and species. Prentice-Hall. United States of America. 400 pp.

7 .  Faust J (2004) Light management in greenhouses (Research Report). Available at:

8 . Ferrante A, Trivellini A and Serra G (2010) Colours Intensity and Flower longevity of Garden Roses. Biological Sciences. 5(1): 125-130.

9 . Gisleord H and Mortenson L (1994) Effect of light intensity on growth and quality of cut roses. Acta Horticulture. 418: 25-30.

10 . Gorton H and Vogelmann T (1996) Effects of epidermal cell shape and pigmentation on optical properties of Anfirrhinum petals at visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. Plant Physiology. 112: 879-8238.

11 . Goodwin TW and Phagpolngarm S (1960) Studies in carotenogenesis. 28. The effect of illumination on carotenoid synthesis in French-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings. Biochemistry. 76: 197-99.

12 . Hamerlynck E, Tuba Z, Csintalan Z, Nagy Z, Henebry G and Goodin D (2000) Diurnal variation in photochemical dynamics and surface reflectance of the desiccation-tolerant moss, Tortula ruralis. Plant Ecology. 151: 55-63.

13 . Hiscox JD and Israelstam GF (1979) A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Canadian Journal of Botany. 57: 1332-1334.

14 . Jeong KY, Pasian CC and Tay D (2007) Response of six Begonia species to different shading levels. Acta Horticuture. 761: 215-220.

15 . Kay RE and Phinney B (1956) Plastid pigment changes in the early seedling leaves of Zea mays L. Plant Physiology. 31: 226-31.

16 . Kays SJ (1991) Postharvest physiology of perishable plant products. Van Nostrand Reinhold Publ. New York. 335 pp.

17 . Kramer PJ and Koslowski T (1979) Physiology of wood Plant. New York: Academic Press. 811 pp.

18 . Krizek DT, Brita SJ and Miewcki RM (1998) Inhibitory effects of ambient level of solar UV-A and UV-B on growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce. Physiologia Plantarum. 103: 1-7.

19 . Leng P, Itamura H, Yamamura H and Deng XM (2002) Anthocyanin accumulation in apple and peach shoots during cold acclimation. Scientia Horticulturae. 83: 43-50.

20 . Leoncio C, Clinton OC and Simpson LK (1976) Light dependent carotenoid synthesis in tomato. Fruit Chemistry. 24: 46-59.

21 . Maekawa S, Terabun M and Nakamura N (1980) Effect of Ultraviolet and visible light on flower pigmentation of Ehigasa roses. Japanese Society of Horticulture Science. 49: 251-259.

22 . McMahon MJ, Kelly JW and Decoteau DR (1990)Specterial Transmittance of selected greenhouse construction and nursery shading material. Environmental Horticulture.8: 118-121.

23 . Merzlyak M and Chivkunova OB (2000) Light-stress-induced pigment changes and evidence for anthocyanin photoprotection in apples. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. 55: 155-163.

24 . Pandey DM, Kang KH and Yeo UD (2005) Effects of excessive photon on the photosynthetic pigments and violaxanthin de epoxidase activity in the xanthophylls cycle of spinach leaf. Plant Science. 168: 161-166.

25 . Reay PF and Lancaste JE (2000) Accumulation of anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides in Gala and Royal Gala apple fruit skin with UV-B-Visible irradiation: modifying effects of fruit maturity, fruit side and temperature. Scientia Horticulture. 90: 57-68.

26 . Samartzidis C, Awada T, Maloupa E, Radoglou K and Constantinidou HIA (2005) Rose productivity and physiological responses to dierent substrates for soil-less culture. Scientia Horticulture. 106: 203-212.

27 . Schiefthaler U, Russell AW, Bolhar-Nordenkampf HR and Critchley C (1999) Photoregulation and photodamage in Schefflera arboricola leaves adapted to different light environments.Plant Physiology. 26: 485-494.

28 . Taiz L and E Zieger (2002) Plant Physiology. 5th Ed. Sinauer Associates.

29 . Tao J, Zhang S, An X and Zhao Z (2003) Effects of light on carotenoid biosynthesis and color formation of citrus fruit peel. Applied Ecology. 14: 1833-1836.

30 . Wagner GJ (1979) Content and vacuole/extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars,free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiological. 64: 88-93.

31 . Whatley F and Whatley FR (1982) A luz e a vida das plants: Temas de biologia. Sao Paulo. 30: 101 p.

32 . Wolf FT (1963) Effects of light and darkness on biosynthesis of carotenoid pigments in wheat seedlings. Plant Physiology. Pp. 649-652. 

33 . Zieslin N and Mor Y (1981) Plant management of greenhouse roses; Formation of renewal canes. Scientia Horticulturae.15: 67-75.

34 . Zieslin N and Mor Y (1990) Light on roses: a review. Scientia Horticulturae. 43: 1-14.