Document Type : Research Paper


1 Lecturer, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University (Science and Research Branch), Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, Iran


To evaluate of rice genotypes in various modified systems, an experiment was carried out as split plot in randomized complete blocks design with four replications at Neka region, Mazandaran province, Iran in 2011-2012. Cropping systems were chosen as main plots including conventional, improved and System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and genotypes as sub plots including: Sang Tarom, Hashemi Tarom, Neda and Shiroodi. The results indicated that the most number of fertile tiller per hill, number of spikelet per square meter (374.8 number) and number of filled spikelet percentage per panicle was produced in SRI that has led to the most paddy yield (6412 kg/ha). The most number of filled spikelet per panicle and filled spikelet percentage per panicle was obtained for cv. Tarom Hashemi. But, number of panicle per square meter (396.8) was the highest in cv. Neda. The maximum paddy yields were 7272 and 7315 kg/ha for cv. Neda and Shiroodi. The highest paddy yield was 7770 kg/ha that produced using SRI and cv. Neda. Paddy yield in SRI was 5.44 and 12.65 percentage more than improved and conventional systems, respectively. Therefore, SRI was a cropping system that with creating optimum management practices had led to increase of paddy yield and yield components of rice.


  1. محدثی ع، اشراقی ا، نصیری م، بهرامی م، اله‌قلی‌پور م، کیانوش غ، توسلی فو، اسکو ت، عارفی ح، صالحی م، پادام ه، عمرانی م، وفادار ا، سعیدی م و یوسفی م (1388) شیرودی، رقم جدید برنج پرمحصول و دارای کیفیت مطلوب. به‌نژادی نهال و بذر. 1-25(4): 655-657.
  2. نعمت‌زاده ق، عارفی ح، خنکدار ی، فقیه‌نصیری ز، فتحی و، ولی­زاده ا، اسکوت، بهرامی م و حسینعلی مانی ر (1380) ندا، رقم پرمحصول برنج با کیفیت فیزیکوشیمیایی مطلوب. نهال و بذر. 17(1): 107-115.


3 . Alagesan V and Budhar MN (2009) System of rice intensification: exploring the level of adoption and problems of discontinuance. Regional Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural. IRRN. 2009.

4. Anonymous (2010) Accessed Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development (CIIFAD). http://www.ciifad.Cornell.Edu/SRI/ countries/index.Html.

5 . Anonymous (2012) What’s New in SAS® 9.3; SAS Institute Inc. SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513: USA 282 p.

6 . Chapagain T, Riseman A and Yamaji E (2011) Achieving more with less water: Alternate wet and dry irrigation (AWDI) as an alternative to the conventional water management practices in rice farming. Agricultural Science. 3(3): 3-13.

7 . De Laulanie H (2011) Intensive rice farming in Madagascar. Tropicultura 29(3): 183-187 (technical notes section). [The Tropicultura editors included this article because it is the 30th anniversary of Laulanies work with SRI; the original article published in their journal appeared in 1993].

8 . Gehring C, De Moura EG and Boddey RM (2008) System of rice intensification (SRI) in southeastern lowlands of Amazonia - a viable alternative for smallholder irrigated rice production? Maranhao State University and National Agrobiology Research Center, Brazil.

9 . Hameed KA, Jaber FA, Hadi AY, Elewi JA and Uphoff N (2011b) Application of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods on productivity of Jasmine rice variety in southern Iraq. Agricultural Sciences. 7(3): 474-481.

10 . Hameed KA, Mosa AKJ and Jabe FA (2011a) Irrigation water reduction using System of Rice Intensification compared with conventional cultivation methods in Iraq. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 121-127.

11 . Nematzadeh GA, Khush GS and Brar BS (1993) Classification of rice germplasm from Iran via isozyme analysis. Rice Genetic Newsletter. 1: 1-10.

12 . Perez R (2002) Experience in Cuba with the System of Rice Intensification. Paper presented at the Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), Sanya, China, and April 1-4.

13 . Randriamiharisoa R, Barison J and Uphoff N (2006) Soil biological contributions to the system of rice intensification. Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems 113: 409-424.

14 . Sharif A (2011) Technical adaptations for mechanized SRI production to achieve water saving and increased profitability in Punjab, Pakistan. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 111-119.

15 . Styger E, Aboubacrine G, Attaher MA and Uphoff N (2011) The system of rice intensification as a sustainable agricultural innovation: introducing, adapting and scaling up a system of rice intensification practices in the Timbuktu region of Mali. Agricultural Sustainability. 9(1): 67-75.

16 . Thakur AK, Rath S, Patil DU and Kumar A (2011) Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 13-24.

17 . Thakur AK, Uphoff N and Antony E (2010) An assess­ment of physiological effects of system of rice inten­sification (SRI) practices compared to recommend rice cultivated practices in India. In: Experimental Agriculture 46: 77-98.

18 . Tuchman M (2012) Proc Document by Example Using SAS. SAS Institute Inc. SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina, USA 27513: 312.

19 . Uphoff N (2003) Higher yields with fewer external inputs? The system of rice intensification and potential contributions to agricultural sustainability. Agricultural Sustainability. 1: 38-50.

20 . Uphoff N (2005) Features of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) apart from increases in yield. Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development.

21 . Uphoff N (2007) The System of Rice Intensification: Using alternative cultural practices to increase rice production and profitability from existing yield potentials. International Rice Commission Newsletter, No. 55. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

22 . Wang SH, Cao WX Jiang D, Dai TB and Zhu Y (2002) Physiological characteristics and high-yield techniques with SRI rice, in N. Uphoff et al., (eds.), Assessments of the System of Rice Intensification, Pp. 116-124 (

23 . Zhao L, Wu L, Wu M and Li L (2011) Nutrient uptake and water use efficiency as affected by modified rice cultivation methods with reduced irrigation. Paddy and Water Environment. 9: 25-32.