Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Iran


German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is one of the most important industrial medicinal plant. In
this experiment the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid in different levels (0, 10-2, 10-4, 10-6) were
investigated on the floral traits and essential oil content of three ecotypes (Italian, Tehran, Zabol) of
German chamomile. The results showed that maximum percentage of essential oil (1.5 weight percent)
was obtained from Zabol ecotype as sprayed with 10-4 M of salicylic acid and Maximum oil yield (0.085
gr per pot) was obtained from Italy ecotype in which treated with 10-2 M salicylic acid. Among the
identified sesquiterpenes of essential oil, Chamazulene, E-β Farencene and α-Bisabolol oxide A were
significantly varied based on the experimental treatments. The highest amount of Chamazulene (3.789
percent) was recorded in Italian ecotype in which treated with 10-2 M salicylic acid, and the same ecotype
produced highest amount of farencene (2.264 percent) when treated with 10-2 M Salicylic acid. The
application of salicylic acid in concentrations of 10-4 and 10-6 M increased the α-Bisabolol oxide A
(respectively, 70.907 and 73.482 percent) Compare with control. Generally, contrary to essential oil yield
component, only the essential oil yield and its constituent were affected by salicylic acid application and
the responses of experimental ecotypes was varied.


1. امید بیگی ر (1374) کاربرد بابونه اصلاح شده در صنایع آرایشی و بهداشتی. مجموعه مقالات اولین سمینار بین­المللی صنایع بهداشتی آرایشی.48-40.
2. امید بیگی ر (1383) رهیافتهای تولید و فرآوری گیاهان دارویی. جلد سوم، انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی،360 ص.
3. باقری م.، گلپرور ا. شیرانی راد ا . ج. زینلی ح. و جعفرپور (1387) بررسی اثرات تاریخ کاشت و مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی بابونه آلمانی در شرایط اصفهان . پژوهش در علوم کشاورزی. 4 (1): 40-29.
4. برنارد ف.، نوری م. مهرابی کوشکی ز. و شاکر بازارنو ح (1387) مقایسه پاسخهای فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی قطعات جدا کشت دو واریته شیرین بیان به مولیبدن و اسید سالیسیلیک. رستنیها. 9(1):88-81.
5. پیر خضری م.، حسینی م.ا. و فخر طباطبائی م (1387) بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی برخی از توده­ها­ی بابونه آلمانی با استفاده از تعدادی صفات مور­فولوژیکی و زراعی. علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی). 22(2) : 99-87.
6. جایمند ک. و رضایی، م. ب (1381) بررسی ترکیب­ها­ی اسانس بابونه دارویی از مناطق تهران، همدان و کازرون. تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و معطر ایران، 13: 23-11.
7.جایمند ک.، رضایی م. ب. عسگری ف. و مشکی­زاده ص (1380) بررسی ترکیب­ها­ی شیمیایی اسانس بابونه (Matricaria chamomilla L).تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی و معطر ایران. 10: 125-105.
8. زینلی ح.، اصفا م. مظفریان و. سفید کن ف. رضائی م.ب. و صفائی ل(1386) ارزیابی ژنوتیپ­ها­ی بابونه آلمانی از لحاظ عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد گل. سومین همایش گیاهان داروئی،تهران، ص275.
9. محمدی ش.، سحرخیز م. ج. و جوان مردی ج (1388) تأثیر اسید سالیسیلیک بر رشد، فعالیت­ها­ی متابولیکی و میزان اسانس گیاه نعناع گربه­ای. همایش علمی توسعه صنعت گیاهان دارویی ایران. 9 و 10 اسفندماه، تهران.
 10. Adams RP (2001) Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/quadropole Mass Spectroscopy. Carol Stream IL: Allured Publication.
11. Alexandra S (2005) German chamomile(Matricaria chamomilla L.) population morphological and chemical diversity . Budapest. Budapest University Department of Horticulture, Ph.D. Dissertation
12. Ali MB, Khatun S, Hahn EJ and Paek kY (2006) Enhancment of phenyl propanoied enzymes and lignin in phalaenopsis orchid and their influence on plant acclimatization at different level of photosynthetic photon flux. Plant Grow Regul. 49: 137-146.
13. British Pharmacopoeia (1993) British pharmacopoeia composition. London v. 1 , 2; pp: 735-360 Apependix XIFA 56. XIFA 54-A154.
14. British pharmacopoeia commission, British Approved Names (2002) A dictionary of drug names for Regulatory use in the uk. (seconded) the stationary office publisher. London.
15. Cleland CF and Ajami A (1974) Identification of the flower- inducing factor isoulated from aphid honeydew as being salicylic acid. Plant Physiol. 54:904-906.
16. Ding C and Want CY (2003) the duel effects of methyl salicylate on ripening and expression for ethylene biosynthetic genes in tomato fruits. Plant Science. 164:589.
17. El-Tayeb MA (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation.45:215-225.
18. Gharib FAL (2006) Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, metabolic activities and oil content of basil and majoram. Internation Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 4: 485-492.
19. Godoy-Hernandez G and M.Loyola-Vargas V (1997) Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on secondary metabolism of catharanthus ruseus tumor suspension culture. Plant Cell Reports. 16: 287-290.
     20. Humphrey AM (1992) Observation on Essential oil Distillation in the laboratory. In the 23rd Intern. Symposium Essential oils. Books of abstract, Ayr, scaotland, OPIV-2.
21. Jabbarzadeh Z, Khish- Khui M and Salehi H (2009) The effect of foliar-applied salicylic acid on flowering of African violet. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 3(4): 4693-4696.
22. Kovacik J, Gruz J, Backor M, Strand M and Repcak M (2009) Salicylic acid induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plant. Plant cell Reports. 28: 135- 143.
23. Mann C and Staba EJ (1986) The chemistry, pharmacology and commercial formulation on chamomile. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plant. 1:236-280.
24. Martinez C,Pons E,Prats G and Leon J (2004) salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defence responses and reproductive development. The Plant Journal .37:209-217.
25. Morgan M (1996) Chamomile from a clinical perspective. Modern phytotherapist.3: 17-19.
26. Pastirova A,Repack M and Eliasora A (2004) Salicylic acid induces changes of coumarin metabolits in Matricaria chamomilla L. Plant Science. 167(4): 819-824.
27. Ram M, Singh R, Naqvi AA, Lohia RS, Bansal RP and Kumar S (1997) Effect of salicylic acid on the yield and quality of essential oil in aromatic crop. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences. 19 (1): 24-27.
28. Raskin I (1992) Salicylate,A new plant hormon. Plant Physiol. 99:799-803.
29. Salamon I (1994) Growing condition and essential oil of chamomile, chamomilla reutita L.(Rauschert) . Herb,Spicesand Medicinal Plant. 22: 31- 43.
30. Salamon I, Ganavati M and Khazaei H (2010) Chamomile biodiversity and essential oil qualitative-quantitative characteristics in Egyptian production and Iranian landraces. J. Food Agric. 22 (1): 59-64.
31. Seo S, Ishizuka K and Ohash Y (1995) induction of salicylic acid beta-glucosidase in tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by exogenous salicylic acid. Plant and Cell Physiol. 36(3): 447-453.