Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran


In order to study of nitrogen application time and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting
rhizobacteria on yield, fertilizer use efficiency and grain filling rate of sunflower, a factorial experiment
was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of
Islamic Azad University, Ardabil branch in 2011. The first factor was time of nitrogen application in
three levels, (1/3 at 4-6 leaf stage, 1/3 at budding stage, 1/3 at flowering stage), (1/2 at 4-6 leaf stage, 1/2
at budding stage), (1/4 at 4-6 leaf stage, 1/2 at budding stage, 1/4 at flowering stage) as N1, N2 and N3
respectively and the second factor was seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four
levels containing (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chrocococum strain
5, Psedomunas putida strain 9, Psedomunas putida strain 41). The results showed that maximum of grain
weight, grain filling period, grain and biological yield, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per head, plant
height, head and stem diameter were obtained in nitrogen application as N2×seed inoculation with
Azotobacter. Maximum of nitrogen use efficiency was recorded at nitrogen application as N2×seed
inoculation with Azotobacter and minimum of it was obtained in nitrogen application as N1× no seed
inoculation. It seems that in order to increasing of grain yield, fertilizer use efficiency and grain filling
rate, can be suggested that should be applied nitrogen application time as N2×seed inoculation with


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