1 . قربانی ا.، بخشی د.، حاجنجاری ح.، قاسمنژاد م. و تقیدوست پ (1389) ترکیبات فنلی و فعالیت آنتیاکسیدانی برخی ارقام ایرانی وارداتی سیب در منطقه کرج. علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی). 24(1): 90-83.
2 . Aberoumand A and Deokule SS (2008) Comparison of phenolic compounds of some edible plants of Iran and India. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 7(4): 582-585.
3 . Alonso-Salces RM, Barranco A, Abad B, Berrueta LA, Gallo B and Vicente F (2004) Polyphenolic profiles of Basque cider apple cultivars and their technological properties. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52: 2938-2952.
4 . Alonso-Salces RM, Herrero C, Barranco A, Berrueta LA, Gallo B and Vicente F (2005) Classification of apple fruits according to their maturity state by the pattern recognition analysis of their polyphenolic compositions. Food Chemistry. 93: 113-123.
5 . Alonso-Salces RM, Korta E, Barranco A, Berrueta LA, Gallo B and Vicente F (2001) Pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of polyphenol in apple. Chromatography. 933: 37-43.
6 . Amzad Hossain M, Salehuddin SM, Kabir MJ, Rahman SMM and Vasantha Rupasinghe HP (2009) Sinensetin, rutin 3-hydroxy- 5, 6, 7, 4-tetramethoxyflavone and rosmarinic acid contents and antioxidative effect of the skin of apple fruit. Food Chemistry. 113: 185-190.
7 . Awad MA and De Jager A (2002) Relationship between fruit nutrients and concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in ‘Elstar’ apple skin. Scientia Horticalturae. 92: 265-276.
8 . Awad MA, De Jager A and Van Westing LM (2000) Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in apple fruit: characterization of variation. Scientia Horticulturae. 83: 249-263.
9 . Awad MA, De Jager A, Van der Plas LHW and Van der Krol AR (2001) Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid changes in skin of ‘Elstar’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples during development and ripening. Scientia Horticulturae. 90: 69-83.
10 . Bakhshi D and Arakawa O (2006) Effect of UV-B irradiation on phenolic compounds accumulation and their antioxidant activity in ‘Jonathan’ apple. Food, Agriculture and Environment. 4(1):75-79.
11 . Boyer J and Liu RH (2004) Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrition. 3: 5.
12 . Chinici F, Bendini A, Gaiani A and Riponi C (2004) Radical scavenging activities of peels and pulps from cv. Golden Delicious apples as related to their phenolic composition. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52: 4684-4689.
13 . Cieslik E, Greda A and Adamus W (2006) Contents of polyphenols in fruits and vegetables. Food Chemistry. 94: 135-142.
14 . D’Abrosca B, Pacifico S, Cefarelli G, Mastellone C and Fiorentino A (2007) Limoncella apple, an Italian apple cultivar: phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry. 104: 1333-1337.
15 . D’Archivio M, Filesi C, Benedetto RD, Gargiulo R, Giovannini C and Masella R (2007) Polyphenols dietary sources and bioavailability. ANN IST SUPER SANITA. 43: 348-361.
16 . Drogoudi PD, Michailidis Z and Pantelidis G (2008) Peel and flesh antioxidant content and harvest quality characteristics of seven apple cultivars. Scientia Horticalturae. 115: 149-153.
17 . Erdman JW, Balentine D, Arab L, Beecher G, Dwyer JT, Folts J, Harnly J, Hollman P, Keen CL, Mazza G, Messina M, Scalbert A, Vita J, Williamson G and Burrowes J (2007) Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America flavonoids workshop. Nutrition. 137: 718S-737S.
18 . Escarpa A and Gonzalez MC (1998) High-performance liquid chromatography with diode- array detection for the determination of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties. Chromatography A. 823: 331-337.
19 . Gosch C, Halbwirt H and Stich K (2010) Phloridzin: Biosynthesis, distribution and physiological relevance in plants. Phytochemistry. 71: 838-843.
20 . Khanizadeh Sh, Tsao R, Rekika D, Yang R, Charles MT and Vasantha Rupasinghe HP (2008) Polyphenol composition and total antioxidant capacity of selected apple genotypes for processing. Food Composition and Analysis. 21: 396-401.
21 . Lata B (2008) Apple peel antioxidant status in relation to genotype, storage type and time. Scientia Horticulturae. 117: 45-52.
22 . Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C and Jimenez L (2004) Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79: 727-747.
23 . Markowski J and Plocharski W (2006) Determination of phenolic compounds in apples and processed apple products. Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 14: (Suppl. 2).
24 . Podsedek A, Wilska-Jeszka J and Anders B (2000) Compositional characterization of some apple varieties. European Food Research and Technology. 210: 268-272.
25 . Ritenour M and Khemira H (2007) Red color development of apple: a literature review. Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research and Extention Center.
26 . Solovchenko A and Schmitz-Eiberger M (2003) Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits. Experimental Botany. 54: 1977-1984.
27 . Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X and Liu RH (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50: 7449-7454.
28 . Tabart J, Kevers C, Pincemail J, Defraigne JO and Dommes J (2009) Comparative antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds measured by various tests. Food Chemistry. 113: 1226-1233.
29 . Van der Sluis A, Dekker M, De Jager A and Jongen W (2001) Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of cultivar, harvest year and storage conditions. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49: 3606-3613.
30 . Veberic R, Trobec M, Herbinger K, Hofer M, Grill D and Stampar F (2005) Phenolic compounds in some apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars of organic and integrated production. The Science of Food and Agriculture. 85: 1687-1694.
31 . Vrhovsek U, Rigo A, Tonon D and Mattivi F (2004) Quantitation of polyphenols in different apple varieties. Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52: 6532-6538.