In order to possibility of improving physiological traits, yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius cv. sina) by anti-transpiration application in rainfed condition, a research was carried out in factorial based on randomized complete block design (RCDB) with three replications in Miyaneh region (East Azarbaijan province - Iran) in 2011. The treatments antitranspirant rate were zero (control), 80, 120 and 160 g a.i.ha-1. The antitranspirant application time was at elongation, flowering and seed filling stages. The results showed that there were significant differences between treatments in all studied traits. Applying atrazine at 80 and 120 g a.i.ha-1 specially in flowering stage by providing plant favorite conditions such as reducing canopy temperature, increasing photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, improved yield and yield components comparing to rainfed stressed condition. Applying atrazine at 160 g a.i.ha-1 did not improve growth but acted as a growth inhibitor. The highest and lowest number of prolific capitol, number of seed in capitol and also grain yield were obtained at 120 g a.i.ha-1 in flowering time and 160 g a.i.ha-1 in elongation time, respectively.


1 . آروین م. ج. و بهرامی­نژاد ع (1386) مطالعه اثر ماده ضدتعرق آترازین بر مقدار محصول ارقام سیب­زمینی تحت شرایط خشکی. نهمین سمینار سراسری آبیاری و کاهش تبخیر.  کرمان. صص. 92-85.
2 . اشکانی ج (1381) تعیین مقاومت به خشکی ارقام گلرنگ پاییزه و ارزیابی برخی شاخص­های مقاومت به خشکی. دانشگاه شیراز. شیراز. پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد.
3 . امام ی. و ایلکایی ن (1381) اثر تراکم و کلرمکوات کلراید بر خصوصیات و عملکرد دانه کلزای پاییزه رقم ‘تلایه’. علوم زراعی. 4(1): 8-1.
4 . بای­بوردیا (1386)تغذیه گیاهی گلرنگ.انتشاراتپریور. 80 ص.
5 . حاجی­زاده ا (1381) ارزیابی وضعیت دانه­های روغنی در نظام اقتصادی ملی. صنعت گیاهان روغنی. 45 ص.
6 . راشدمحصل م. ح. و نصیری محلاتی م (1372) فیزیولوژی علف­کش­ها (ترجمه). انتشارات جهاددانشگاهی مشهد. 589 ص.
7 . سرمدنیا غ. و کوچکی ع (1368) جنبه­های فیزیولوژیکی زراعت دیم (ترجمه). انتشارات جهاددانشگاهی مشهد. 462 ص.
8 . عشقی­زاده ح. ر. و احسان­زاده پ (1388) نمود ذرت هیبرید تحت رژیم­های متفاوت آبیاری: فلورسانس کلروفیل، رشد و عملکرد دانه. دانش کشاورزی. 40(2): 145-153.
9 . فروزان ک (1379) گلرنگ. انتشارات شرکت سهامی خاص توسعه کشت دانه‌های روغنی. 154 ص.
10 . کاظم­پور س. و تاج­بخش م (1381) اثر بعضی مواد ضدتعرق بر خصوصیات رویشی، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت تحت آبیاری محدود. علوم کشاورزی ایران. 33(2): 211-205.
11 . کافی م.، نظامی ا.، حسینی ح. و معصومی ع (1386) اثرات فیزیولوژیک تنش خشکی ناشی از پلی­اتیلن گلیگول بر جوانه­زنی ژنوتیپ­های عدس. پژوهش­های زراعی ایران.
3(1): 80-69.
12 . مظفری ک.، عرشی ی. و زینالی ح (1375) بررسی اثر تنش خشکی در برخی از صفات مرفولوژیک و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان. نهال و بذر. 12(3): 33-24.
13 . نبوی­کلات س. م.، کریمی م.، نورمحمدی ق.، صدرآبادی ر. و عزیزی م (1385) تعیین تاریخ کاشت و تراکم گیاهی مناسب در ارقام پاییزه گلرنگ در جوین سبزه­وار. دانش کشاورزی. 11(4): 157-145. 
14 . Alizade KH (2005) Evaluation of safflower germplasm by some agronomic characteristics and their relationships on grain yield production in the cold
dry land of Iran. Agriculture and Biology. 7(3): 389-391.
15 . Ashraf MY, Azim AR, Khan AH and Ala SA (1994) Effect of water stress on total phenols, peroxidase activity and chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Acta Physiologia Plantarum. 16: 185- 191.
16 . Atteya AM (2003) Alternation of water relations and yield of corn genotypes in response to drought stress. Plant Physiology. 29: 63-76.
17 . Baker NR and Rosenqvist E (2004) Application of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve crop production strategies: an examination of future possibilities. Experimental Botany. 55(403): 1607-1621.
18 . Banisadr H and Tahir M (1991) Heat and cold tolerance in Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum var. durum from Iran. 8th wheat symposium. Beijing. China. Pp. 51-60.
19 . Blanco I, Rajaram AS, Kronstad WE and Reynolds MO (2000) Physiological performance of synthetice hexaploid wheat-derived populations. Crop Science. 40: 1257-1263.
20 . Byari SH and O’keefe RB (1982) Effect of antitranspirants on heat and drought response of potato varieties. HortScience. 17: 513-518.
21 . Chaves MM, Flexas J and Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Annals of Botany-London. 103: 551-560.
22 . Chinnusamy V, Xiong L and Zhu JK (2004) Use of genetic engineering and molecular biology approaches for crop improvement for stress environments. In: Abiotic stress: Plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. Ashraf, M., and P. J. C. Harris, (eds.). Food Products Press. Pp. 47-107.
23 . Del Amor FM, Cuadra-Crespo P, Walker DJ,
Camara JM and Madrid R (2010) Effect of foliar application of antitranspirant on photosynthesis and water relations of pepper plants under different levels of CO2 and water stress. Plant Physiology. 167: 1232-1238.
24 . Dhanda SS and Sethi GS (1998) Inheritance of excised-leaf water loss and relative water content in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Euphytica. 104: 39-47.
25 . Fischer RA, Rees D, Sayre KD, Lu ZM, Candon AG and Saavedra AL (1998) Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler canopies. Crop Science. 38: 1467-1475.
 26 . Goreta S, Leskovar DI and Jifon JL (2007) Gas exchange, water status, and growth of pepper seedlings exposed to transient water deficit stress are differentially altered by antitranspirants. American Society Horticulture Science. 132: 603-610.
27 . Herzog H (1986) Source and sink during the reproductive period of wheat. Scientific publishers, Berlin and Hamburg.
28 . Kattlewell PS, Heath WL and Haigh IM (2010)
Yield enhancement of droughted wheat by film antitranspirant application. Agricultural Science.
3: 143-147.
29 . Kumar P, Lakshmi NJ and Mani VP (2002) Interactive effects of salicylic acid and phytohormones on photosynthesis and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill). Physiology Molecular Biology Plants. 6: 179-186.
30 . Li AG, Hou YS, Wal GW, Trent A, Kimbal BA and Pinter PJ (2000) Free air carbon dioxide enrichment and drought stress effect on grain filling rate and grain filling duration in spring wheat. Crop Science. 40: 1263-1270.
31 . Liang J and Zhang YM (1999) The relation of stomatal closure and reopening to xylem ABA concentration and leaf water potential soil during and rewatering. Plant Growth Regulation. 29: 77-86.
32 . Liang Z, Zhang F, Shao M and Zhang J (2002) The relations of stomatal conductance, water consumption, growth rate to leaf water potential during soil drying and rewatering cycle of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 43: 187-192.
33 . Mahasi MJ, Pathak RS, Wachiva FN, Riungu TC, Kinyaa MG and Kamundia JW (2005) Correlation and path coefficient analysis in exotic safflower genotype tested in the arid and semi arid land of Kenya. Experimental Botany. 466: 65-73.
 34 . Meidner H (1981) Class expriments in plant physiology, British library catalogaing in publication Data. Londan.
35 . Moftah AE and Al-Humaid AI (2005) Effects of Kaolin and Pinolene Film-forming Polymers on Water Relations and Photosynthetic Rate of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). King Saudi University. 18(1): 35-49.
36 . Oelke EA, Oplinger ES and Teynor TM (20040 Safflower. University of Minnesota. Pp. 97-109.
37 . Pinter JP, Gzipoli J, Reginato RJ, Jackson RD and Idso SB (1990) Canopy temperature as indicator of different water use and yield performance among wheat cultivars. Agricultural and Water Management. 18: 35-48.
38 . Poorter H and Pérez-Soba M (2001) The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under nonoptimal environmental conditions. Oecologia. 129: 1-20.
39 . Rashid A, Stark JC, Tanveer A and Mustafa T (1999) Use of canopy temperature measurements as a screening tool for drought tolerance in spring wheat. Agronomy and Crop Science. 182: 231-237.
40 . Roth G and Goyne P (2004) Measuring plant water status. Section 3: Irrigation management of cotton. 164 pp.
41 . Sattar A, Chowdhry MA and Kashif M (2003) Estimation of heritability and genetic gain of some metric traits in six hybrid population of spring wheat. Asian Journal of Plant Science. 2: 495-497.
42 . Schutzz M and Fangmeier A (2001) Growgh and yield responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. CV. Minaret)to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution. 114: 187- 194.
43 . Sharma N, Gupta K, Gupta S and Hasegawa H (2005) Effect of NaCl salinity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and oxidative stress tolerance in contrasting wheat genotypes. Photosynthetica. 43(4): 609-613
44 . Slatyer PO and Bierhuizen JF (1964) The influence of several transpiration suppressants on transpiration, photosynthesis and water use efficiency of cotton leaves. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences.
17: 31-46.
45 . Tanaka A and Tanaka R (2006) Chlorophyll metabolism. Plant Biology. 9: 248-255.
46 . Thakuria RK, Singh H and Singh T (2004) Effect of irrigation and antitranspirant on biometric components, seed yield and plant water-use of spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Indian Journal of Agronomy.
49: 121-123.
47 . Wu MT, Singh B and Salunkhe DK (1971) Influence of foliar application of seedling. Igran and GS-14254 on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase of pea seedling. Phytochemistry. 10: 2025-2027.
48 . Zelitch I (1969) Stomatal control. Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 20: 29-50.