A field experiment was conducted at College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Iran in 2007 to evaluate the herbicides efficacy in a marigold nursery to control weeds including annual flowers. Experimental design was a RCBD with total 12 treatments replicated four times. Treatments were trifluralin preplant incorporated at two and three Li/ha, trifluralin preplant non incorporated at two and three Li/ha, oxyfluorfen preplant at two and three Li/ha, oxyfluorfen postemergence at two and three Li/ha and cholorothol-dimethyl preplant at 10 Kg/ha, two-times hand weeding, weedy and weed free treatments were also included as control. Application of oxyfluorfen preplant and trifluralin preplant at both rates of two and three Li/ha controlled weeds by 70 percent. This treatment had no phytotoxic effects on marigolds and did not reduce their yields either. Among applied herbicides, application of non-soil incorporated trifluralin treatment compared with treatment of the same soil incorporated with herbicides, due to easier application, indicated its preference and also had no phytotoxic effects on marigold.


1 . حکمتی ج (1382) گل­های فصلی (گل­های فضای آزاد). انتشارات نشر علوم کشاورزی، 285 صفحه.
2 . خلیقی ا (1374) پرورش گیاهان زینتی ایران. انتشارات روزبهان، 392 ص.
3 . رضایی­نژاد ع (1387) علف­های هرز چغندرقند. انتشارات اونتیس، 360 ص.
4 . زند ا.، باغستانی م. ع.، بیطرفان م. و شیمی پ (1385) راهنمای علف­کش­های ثبت شده در ایران(با رویکرد مدیریت مقاومت  علف­های هرز به علف­کش­ها. جهاددانشگاهی مشهد، 60 ص.
5 . موسوی م ر (1380) مدیریت تلفیقی علف‌های هرز (اصول و روش‌ها). نشر میعاد، 468 ص.
6 . یوسفی ج.، محمد علیزاده ح. و محمدی م (1386) مقایسه روشهای مبارزه (مکانیکی، فیزیکی و شیمیایی) با علف­های هرز خزانه کاج تهران (Pinus elderica) در نهالستان بزرگ کرج. پژوهش و سازندگی در زراعت و باغبانی 75: 24-14.
7 . Adamson RM and Crossly JH (1968) Annual flower plant growth as affected by soil-incorporated herbicides. Weed Science 16(1): 60-62.
8 . Altland JE, Gillam CH and Wehtje G (2003) Weed control in field nurseries. HortTechnology 13: 9-14.
9 . Altland JE, Gilliam CH, Kessler JR, Wallace EM and Riggs AM (2001) Pansy tolerance to preemergence herbicides.  Environmental Horticulture 19: 123-127.
10 . Frets TA (1973) Herbicide-impregnated mulches for weed control in container nursery stock. Scientia Horticulture 1(2): 165-170.
11 . Fretz TA (1972) Weed competition in container-grown Japanese Holly. HortScience 7: 485-486.
12 . Froment M, Mastebroek D and Van Gorp K (2001) A Growers manual for Calendula officinalis L. Interactive European Network for Industrial Crops and their Applications press. 11 p.
13 . Gallitano LB and Skroch WA (1993) Herbicide efficacy for production of container ornamentals. Weed Technology 7: 103-111.
14 . Giorcelli A and Vietto L (1996) Fitotosicitah verso il pioppo di principi attivi diserbanti distribuiti in post-emergenza. ATTI Giornate Fitopatologiche 1: 405-412.
15 . Hansen EA and Netzer DA (1985) Weed control using herbicides in short-rotation intensively cultured poplar plantations. Research Paper, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. Pp. 1-6.
16 . Judge CA and Neal JC (2000) Susceptibility of common nursery weeds to preemergence herbicides. Proceeding of SNA Research Conference. 45: 370-374.
17 . Kuhns LJ (1992) The effectiveness of preemergence herbicide
under, above, or without mulch. Proc. 46th annual meeting of the northeastern weed science society. Pp. 40-95 (Abst.).
18 . Lamont GP, O'Connell MA and Nicholls PJ (1985) An evaluation of pre-emergent herbicides for container grown ornamental plants. Scientia Horticulture 26(3): 241-251.
19 . Neal JC (2009) Chemical weed control in ornamentals. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. 354 p.
20 . Norcini JG and Stamps RH (1994) Container nursery weed control online internet. University of Florida Press. 42 p.
21 . Sandral GH, Dear BS, Pratley JE and Cullis BR (1997) Herbicide dose rate response curves in subterranean clover determinated by a bioassay. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 37: 67-74.
22 . Sixto H, Grau JM and Garcia-Baudin JM (2001) Assessment of the effect of broad-spectrum pre-emergence herbicides in poplar nurseries. Crop Protection 20: 121-126.
23 . Somani L (1992) Dictionary of weed science. Agrotech Publishing Academy (India). 256 p.
24 . Stamps RH and Neal CA (1990) Evaluation of dinitroaniline herbicides for weed control in container landscape production. Environmental Horticultural 8: 52-57.
25 . Talbert R, Tierney MJ, Sterbe TA, Kitt MJ and Burgos NR (1995) Field evaluation of herbicide on small fruit, vegetable and ornamental crop. Research Series Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. No. 447. P. 58.
26 . Weston LA, McNeil RA and Harmon R (1996) Preemergence herbicide for Use in annual bedding plant. Proceeding of SNA Research Conference. 41: 253-257.